Sunday, November 30, 2008

china Threat

China's Multi-level Air Defense Network
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Tuesday, July 9, 2002

Situation at the End of 2001

In mid-2000, the authors compiled a comprehensive report on China's construction – based on Russian technology – of a multi-level air defense network covering most of China's coast. The essence of this report – which did not attract the attention of U.S. officials – was used in the book "Chinese-Russian Alliance" (compiled in July 2001, to be published by NewsMax in September 2002).

Much has changed in this area – just as in other PLA sectors – in a year, however; this article is an attempt to track the most significant changes.

In 2000-2001, China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) adopted the concept of "offensive and defensive character" for the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) instead of the purely "defensive Air Force" concept used for many years – and began implementing it. This immediately resulted in an acceleration of PLA air defense troop development; most of these troops, and almost all long-range and mid-range air defense missile systems, are subordinate to the PLAAF.

What is even more important, in 2001, both the PLAAF and PLA ground forces (focusing on anti-aircraft artillery and air defense missile (ADM) systems of short range and low altitude) concentrated efforts on the improvement of "san da" (three strikes) capabilities, which meant "strike at the enemy's stealth fighters, cruise missiles and attack helicopters."

Development of PLA air defense troops – more precisely, an air defense multi-level network – became even more accelerated. By the end of 2001, this network effectively covered the coastal, most-developed regions of the country as well as the most important areas in the internal regions, and generally included four major levels:

  • Long-range, high-altitude ADM systems, represented by Russian-made S-300 systems as well as their Chinese-made copies and "derivatives" (given below). They are subordinate to the PLAAF.

  • Mid-range, mid-altitude ADM systems, represented mostly by Russian-made TOR-M1 systems, their Chinese-made derivatives (given below) and "original Chinese" KS-1 systems. They are mostly subordinate to the PLAAF.

  • Short-range, low-altitude systems, represented primarily by Chinese-made copies of the Russian Tunguska missile-artillery system (mostly subordinate to PLA ground forces).


  • Shoulder-launched missiles of Russian and Chinese origin and Chinese-made anti-aircraft artillery (almost entirely concentrated in PLA ground forces).

At this point it would be proper to quote the article "[Major] Developments in China in the Military Area in 2001," published by the Taiwan-based journal Chung-Kung Yen-chiu (PRC [People's Republic of China] Research) in February 2002:

Presently the PLA is equipped with Russian-made S-300 PMU1 long-range ADM systems, [Russian-made] Tor-M1 field ADM [systems], "Feimeng" improved ADMs for ultra-low altitude, KS-1 mid-range ADMs, and QW-1 shoulder-launched ADMs; they form an all-range road-mobile ADM network.

In addition, the PLA acquired the FT-2000 "anti-radar missile system," to be used against the enemy's electronic warfare aircraft of various kinds and AWACS aircraft. The FT-2000, 6.8 m in length, 0.466 m in diameter, 1.3 tons in weight, has a range between 12 km and 100 km and an effective altitude between 3 km and 20 km. Each FT-2000 launcher has four missile-launching vertical tubes on the mobile platform; the FT-2000 system in its outer appearance is extremely close to the Russian S-300 system." (end of excerpt)

They forgot to mention the Chinese-made (reverse engineered) version of Russia's Tunguska system, known as GPZ-954. (Perhaps Feimeng is just the new name for it?)

One can claim that, by the end of 2001, PLA inventories included many hundreds of road-mobile systems of three upper levels and many thousands of weapons for the lowest level.

Situation in 2002

During the first half of 2002, this air defense network continued its quantitative expansion and qualitative upgrading. The following report characterizes this trend:

(Moscow-based Vedomosti newspaper, April 30, 2002, briefly):

In early April (April 4, by some data), Rosoboronexport (the Russian weapons export monopoly) signed a contract to sell two S-300F ship-borne anti-aircraft complexes to China for $200 million. The contract has increased the newly established (by President Putin's order signed in mid-April) Almaz-Antei Corp. parcel of orders by 50 percent. The Altair Enterprise is the company that produces the S-300F complex. Altair and 20 other designers and producers have become parts of Almaz-Antei.

The S-300F complex is a ship-borne replica of the S-300 anti-aircraft complexes. Beijing plans to install the RIF complexes (the name of the export version of the S-300F) on two warships that will be built in China by 2005. An expert from the Russian Air Force said that the S-300F complexes would be installed by China on cruisers designed by Chinese specialists.

In addition to this contract, Almaz-Antei will receive a contract to build the S-300 anti-aircraft complexes for China ($400 million). As a result, the total sum of its contracts will increase to $600 million. (end of report)

This report was confirmed by publications in the Taiwan and Hong Kong media on June 12-13, 2002, which specified that China is building, with Russian assistance, two "super-Sovremenny" destroyers, to be equipped by RIF ADM systems with a range up to 120 km.

Remarkably, the Chinese air defense network could spread to the sea, as a result of RIF installation on naval vessels, for at least 200 km. Earlier, Chinese frigates and destroyers could barely defend themselves from air strikes. However, Chinese destroyers of the new generation will become "outposts" of a coast-based air defense network.

Just as in the case of weapon platforms of other kinds, China's defense industry does it best for "guochanhua" (reverse engineering) of Russian-made ADM systems.

In 2002-2003, China very probably will master – or has already mastered – serial production of

the following systems, whose development has been under way, based on Russian technology, since 1999-2000:

  1. HQ-15. This is the slightly improved version of Russia's long-range high-altitude S-300 PMU1/PMU2 system, with a range up to 120 km and an altitude up to 25 km.

  2. HQ-16 or "super-Tor-M1." This is an all-new ADM system, jointly under development with Russia. It is a mid-range system, effective against low- to medium-altitude (100 m to 20 km) targets. The system's reaction time (time between target detection and missile launch) is 6-8 seconds.

    A single missile system can simultaneously attack eight aircraft or missile targets, with a target-hit probability of 90 percent for any of these targets. The system uses the currently most-advanced vertical launching technology, a phased-array radar, and a composite-guidance warhead. Plans call for the HQ-16 to widely enter PLA service about 2005.

  3. HQ-17. This is a slightly improved version of the Russian Tor-M1 system with a range up to 30 km and altitude up to 15 km. In 2000, the PLA decided to construct, by 2002-2003, between 10 and 12 air defense brigades equipped with hundreds of Tor-M1s and HQ-17s, as well as Chinese original KS-1 and KS-1A ADM systems.

  4. HQ-18. This is a slightly improved version of the Russian S-300 V system. Its major characteristics somewhat surpass those of the HQ-15.

    All the listed systems are road-mobile, just like the original S-300 and Tor-M1.

  5. Feimeng (?) PGZ-95, having its prototype in the Russian Tunguska missile artillery system. It combines one ADM launcher and four 25 mm anti-aircraft guns on a single mobile platform. The system, with an altitude up to 3.5 km and a range up to 6 km, provides high-density fire and reportedly is extremely effective against cruise missiles and fighters of the fourth generation (F-15s, F-16s and F-18s). Serial production was mastered in 1999.

  6. Shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles. This includes hundreds of Russian-made Igla missiles and their Chinese derivatives. This is in addition to China's original HQ-1, HQ-2 and HN-5 missiles.

PLA Navy: From 'Green Water' to 'Blue Water' – Part I
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Friday, July 26, 2002

In the first half of 2002, the attention of Western military specialists was drawn to two large-scale contracts concluded by China and Russia and aimed at PLA (People's Liberation Army) Navy modernization:

  1. construction of two Sovremenny-class missile destroyers, for $1.4 billion;

  2. construction of eight upgraded Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines, for $1.6 billion.
Indeed, $3 billion in six months is a huge sum of money. However, this represents only a part of the resources directed at PLA Navy (PLAN) modernization. In any case, the rate of PLAN modernization and construction is not inferior to similar rates of the PLA Air Force and air-defense network (described in recently published articles).

General Structure of the Chinese Shipbuilding Industry

Remarkably, China has a comparatively modern shipbuilding industry; this definitely facilitates PLAN development.

In July 1999, China General Shipbuilding Company was divided, for the purpose of "socialist competition" and accelerated development, into China Shipbuilding Industry Group Corp. (SIGC) and China Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Group Corp. (SHIGC).

SIGC includes several large shipbuilding plants in Shanghai and Guangzhou Shipbuilding Plant, producers of diesel engines and other equipment for vessels. SHIGC includes Dalian Shipbuilding Plant, Dalian New Shipbuilding Plant and Qingdao Shipbuilding Plant, producers of diesel engines for vessels, etc.

During the year 2000, SIGC finished construction of 112 civilian vessels, a total of about 2 million tons deadweight. The volume of production and export increased by about 45 percent from the 1999 level.

Shanghai-based Hudong Shipbuilding Plant, Shanghai-based Jiangnan Shipbuilding Plant and the Guangzhou (capital of Guangdong province) Shipbuilding Plant provided more than 80 percent of the finished deadweight. Several vessels have a deadweight of 80,000-100,000 tons each.

The same year, SHIGC finished construction of 72 civilian vessels, a total of about 1.5 million tons deadweight. Dalian Shipbuilding Plant and Dalian New Shipbuilding Plant provided at least 80 percent of the finished deadweight; this included a 300,000-ton oil tanker for Iran.

By mid-2002, total annual capacity of the two Dalian-based plants approached an estimated 5 million tons deadweight.

Together, the two companies constructed, in 2000, civilian ships of about 3.5 million tons total deadweight. This volume approached 4.5 million tons in 2001 and, by preliminary estimate, could surpass 5 million tons in 2002.

In addition, SIGC and SHIGC annually produce several hundred diesel engines of large capacity and much other equipment for vessels, including sophisticated electronics for control and navigation.

Read Part II of this article.

China's Guochanhua (Reverse Engineering)
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Thursday, June 13, 2002
Brief History of 'Guochanhua'

The July 1960 break in the Sino-Soviet alliance definitely wasn't a one-time event. The Chinese leaders understood the inevitability of separation by 1958 and did their best to accumulate by all means available - including direct theft - thousands and thousands of sets of the most-advanced Soviet technologies, i.e., weapons know-how, dual-use goods and heavy machinery.

After July 1960, China proclaimed the general course of "basing on our own forces" and concentrating forces on reproducing (reverse engineering, or "guochanhua" in Chinese) the Soviet technology.

China abandoned this autarchy and reinstated ties with the "outer world" after the start of the Great Reform in December 1978. And it appeared that, by the early 1980s, China had completed the reverse engineering of Soviet weapons and heavy machinery.

Generally, it is possible to claim that by about 1984, China acquired the capability to produce - and really master production of, sometimes in single copies - entire sets of Soviet weapons and dual-use products belonging to 1960-61 standards. This in particular included the following (Soviet name first, Chinese name in parentheses):

China to build large military cargo plane

By Andrei Chang
Column: Military Might

Hong Kong, China — Ukraine and China have been engaged in negotiations on the joint design of a large military transport aircraft, according to sources in the Ukrainian Antonov Aircraft Company. The agreement was expected to be inked this month, with the aircraft project to begin soon afterward.

According to a source in the Ukrainian military industry, the basic design concept of the aircraft has already been finalized. The Chinese military transport aircraft will adopt different design concepts and technologies than the An-70 transport aircraft designed by Ukraine and Russia, the source said, and will be powered by four jet engines. Additional technical details of the transport aircraft are to be finalized after the November signing.

In recent years, China has greatly reinforced its strategic military ties with Ukraine in a variety of areas, but this is the two countries’ first collaboration in developing a large aircraft. A source from the Russian aviation industry says that China did not ask for Russian assistance on this project, suggesting that China is shifting its design cooperation away from Russia and toward Ukraine. It also indicates that the new aircraft will be an upgrade of the An-70 rather than a duplication of it.

China expressed keen interest in the An-70 as early as the mid-1990s, when the aircraft was undergoing flight tests in Russia and Ukraine. The aircraft did not get off to an auspicious start, however. The first prototype was tested in Kiev, Ukraine, in December, 1994, but the same plane crashed the following year. The second prototype was damaged in an accident at Omsk, Russia, in 2001.

In 2002, Russia and Ukraine agreed to each take a 50 percent stake in the project, and two more prototypes were manufactured. But by April, 2006, following the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, Russia decided to withdraw from the project.

The aircraft is still under test. The Ukrainian Air Force appears to be the only buyer, having announced its intent to procure five of the An-70s. China’s decision to design its own large military transport aircraft on the foundation of the An-70 technologies is apparently intended to take advantage of the extensive testing the aircraft has already undergone, to save research and development time.

The Anatov source has confirmed the Chinese military transport aircraft will not be fitted with the An-70’s D-27 engine, though it did not disclose what type of engine will be used. The D-27 has an output thrust power of 14,000 horsepower, maximum payload of 47 tons and a flight range of 6,600 kilometers (with a payload of 20 tons).

China has recently imported 240 D-30 KP-2 engines from Russia to use in upgrading its H-6K bombers. It is unlikely that this engine would be used for the military transport plane, however. Russia is already replacing some of the D-30KP-2 engines on its Il-76 airlifter with upgraded D-30 KP-3 or PS-90 engines. The D-30KP-2 does not meet Europe’s latest noise control standards, so the Il-76 aircraft powered by these engines are not allowed to land at European airports.

The dispute over a deal involving China’s import of 38 Russian aircraft – 30 Il-76 transport aircraft and eight Il-78 air-to-air refueling tankers – has not been completely resolved. The Russian side insists that the price of the aircraft agreed in a 2005 deal is no longer viable.

The Il-76 is still the mainstay export platform for Russia, hence Russia has not agreed to transfer its production technology to China, nor have the two sides initiated negotiations on this particular issue, according to a source from the Russian aviation industry. It is because of this that China has turned its attention to Ukraine.

Alexander Mikheev, vice president of Rosoboronexport, Russia’s official defense industry exporter, told the author in a recent interview at a U.K. air show that China still intended to pursue the negotiations on the Il-76 and Il-78 aircraft, and the contract was still in effect.

“We demanded to re-discuss the price of the aircraft,” said Mikheev. He denied that a price had already been agreed upon, however. “We are only demanding that the new price should be in line with the international standard,” he said.

Regarding the timeline of resuming production and assembling the aircraft, he stressed that Russia had already allocated funds to build a new factory at Ulianovsk, and the production of the Il-76 transport aircraft would begin in 2011.

China does not have much experience in the design and production of large transport aircraft, nor are its current projects in this area proceeding smoothly. An example is the Y8F-600 medium-sized military transport plane, for which Antonov agreed in 2002 to provide design assistance.

Even though reports from China claim the plane has already been tested, a source from the Ukrainian aviation industry says its maiden flight has been repeatedly put off and has yet to take place.

According to the original design, the Y8F-600 is powered by four PW150B turboprop engines produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada, with British R408 propellers. Test engines have been delivered to China from Canada, purportedly for use in civilian aircraft.

Yet due to pressure from the United States to restrict exports of military technology to China, it is questionable whether Canada will ultimately allow the export of enough P&W engines to meet China’s production needs. Under this circumstance, China will have no choice but to use Russian or Ukrainian engines in its military transport aircraft.

Thursday, November 27, 2008

China’s carrier plans worry region

By Yu Tsung-chi 余宗基

Friday, Nov 28, 2008, Page 8

In a recent interview with the Financial Times, Chinese Major General Qian Lihua (錢利華), director of the Defense Ministry’s Foreign Affairs Office, said China has every right to build aircraft carriers, without confirming whether it had decided to do so. This enigmatic remark stirred fresh speculation about China’s intentions in developing or acquiring the carriers in light of its economic rise.

China’s intention to build up its own aircraft carriers, viewed as an essential component of building the “blue water” navy able to deploy beyond its coastal waters, has not surprised China watchers. In fact, China has already invested decades of effort in its bid to acquire or develop a monstrous warship.

In 1975 Admiral Liu Huaqing (劉華清), vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, highlighted for first time that China must establish its own aircraft carrier battle group(s) to secure sea lines of communication and protect national sovereignty.

Liu said the goal of developing aircraft carriers was not to start an arms race with the US or the Soviet Union but to meet the requirements for a potential military struggle with Taiwan, settle potential conflicts in the South China Sea, protect its maritime resources, enable China to keep up with regional powers such as India and Japan, give the Chinese navy a decisive edge in future warfare, and participate in the world peacekeeping.

China has purchased four decommissioned carriers: the Melbourne (1985), the Varyag (1998), the Minsk (1998) and the Kiev (2000) from Australia, Ukraine and Russia respectively. Only the Varyag, now docked in Dalien, seems to be a candidate for refurbishment to operational status after photos seen in December 2005 appeared to show activity on the deck to apply new coatings consistent with aircraft operations.

Some specialists, however, believe that these four carriers — which are different in terms of function, designation and structure — must have been used to expedite China’s research and development capabilities in developing its own model.

There have been many reports regarding China’s aircraft carrier intentions. In October 2006, the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Russia had signed a US$2.5 billion arms sale contract with China to deliver 48 SU-33 fighters, which the Sukhoi Aviation Bureau designed specifically for carrier operations.

In March last year, a Beijing-backed Hong-Kong newspaper reported that China could have its first aircraft carrier by 2010. Rick Fisher, vice president of the International Assessment and Strategy Center and an expert on the Chinese military, concurred with that report. He believes that “before the end of this decade, we will see preparations for China to build its first indigenous aircraft carrier.”

Jane’s Defence Weekly reported last month that the People’s Liberation Army was training the first batch of 50 cadets to become naval pilots capable of operating aircraft from the mock-up carrier at the Dalian Naval Academy.

All this is evidence that China has a more ambitious and impending timetable than many might think. An aircraft carrier is perceived as a potent symbol of national power, and China is expected to finish building its first aircraft carrier within two to five years.

Such a scenario is cause for concern in East Asia, especially among countries that claim sovereignty over the Spratly Islands, and will definitely have a great impact on other countries in the region — India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and of course, Taiwan — as well as the US.

The case of Taiwan is especially noticeable because if the Varyag can be transformed into China’s first aircraft carrier battle group, it would have a great impact on Taiwan’s defensive operation.

By then, Taiwan’s operational forces would be kept at bay because China’s aircraft carrier(s) could sail off Taiwan’s east coast, beyond the radius of action of fighter jets. This could not only deter foreign forces coming to Taiwan’s aid, but also allow China to attack Taiwan from both sides.

Subsequently, Taiwan’s “forces reservation” at a preliminary stage in east Taiwan, where it reportedly can protect more than half of its sophisticated fighter aircraft, would also be challenged by China’s new capabilities.

Although submarines are believed is the best deterrent to aircraft carriers, Taiwan only has four submarines — two World War II-era subs from the Soviet Union and two Dutch subs imported in the 1980s. These outdated subs are obviously ill-suited to deter China’s new carrier equipped with the state-of-the-art weapon systems supported by Russia.

To remedy the cross-strait status quo tilting in China’s favor, the US must review the hold-up on its offer to sell Taiwan eight submarines. After all, any policy disregarding the Taiwan Relations Act would endanger the equilibrium in the Taiwan Strait and increase the likelihood of war that would involve the US.

An aircraft carrier is also a long-range power project weapon. Such a weapon in China’s hands could serve as augury for China’s rise and to determine if its intentions are hostile.

Some specialists have said that growing Chinese international stature and self-confidence also means fewer releases of human rights activists, less reticence about openly pursuing its military development, and increasing defiance when confronted with criticism.

The US, India and Japan would also be anxious about the prospects of carriers, about how they will be used in the Chinese fleet and what impact they will have on China’s foreign policy.

China’s military actions in recent years are particularly alarming. In April 2001 China ignored international law in holding a US EP3 flight crew for 12 days; in November 2006 a Chinese submarine surfaced in the vicinity of a US Navy aircraft battle group in the East China Sea; in January last year China launched its anti-satellite weapon without a public notice, putting at risk other nations’ space assets.

Even as cross-strait relations are thawing, China has not hesitated to deploy cutting-edge YJ-62 guided missiles with a maximum range in excess of 400km along the southeast coastline opposite Taiwan. These missiles are a military threat and hostile gesture toward not only Taiwan but toward all of China’s neighbors.

This is clearly at odds with China’s claim of peaceful rise or peaceful development. In fact, improving Sino-American strategic relations are conditioned upon China not challenging US global leadership, a position that Chinese leaders have repeatedly stressed. China’s rigorous military reach-out, however, is now being interpreted otherwise. The more China’s flexes its military muscle the more defiant it may become.

To mollify its neighbors’ worries, it would behoove China to explain the purposes and intentions behind its carrier-building program. The more transparent China is about its military and security affairs, the less other nation’s militaries have to assume the worst and respond accordingly, leading to potential misunderstandings, miscalculations and an action-reaction cycle of military preparations, to the detriment of all sides.

Yu Tsung-chi is a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council in the US.
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Monday, November 24, 2008

North Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
1st (Nuclear) Submarine Base
2nd Submarine Flotilla

12th Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
1st Destroyer Flotilla

DDG-112 “Ha Erbin”,
DDG-106 “Xi’an”,
DDG-107 “Yinchuan”,
DDG-108 “Xining”,
DDG-109 “Kaifeng”,
DDG-115 “Shenyang”,
DDG-116 “Shi Jiazhuang”
FFG-535 “Huangshi”,
FFG-536 “Wuhu”,
FFG-537 “Zhoushan”
10th Destroyer Flotilla
DDG-163 “Nanchang”,
DDG-164 “Guilin”,
DDG-105 “Jinan”,
DDG-105 “Jinan”
FFG-519 “Changzhi”,
FFG-543 “Dandong”,
FFG-545 “Linfen”

1st Landing Ship Squadron
1st Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
1st Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
2nd Naval Air Division
5th Naval Air Division
3rd Independent Air Regiment
6th Independent Air Regiment
Training Regiment
Shipborne Helicopter Wing

Coastal Defence Forces
4th Radar Brigade
11th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regiment
12th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regimen
2nd AAA Regiment
Electronic Warfare Regiment

Major Bases
Qingdao Support Base
Lushun Support Base
Weihai Naval Garrison
Dalian Naval Garrison
North Sea Fleet Training Base

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Varyag aircraft carrier

Renew U.S. Ties With the Changing Chinese Military
By Gerald Segal
Published: SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1992

HONG KONG: China is more secure than at any time in several centuries. Yet the Chinese People's Liberation Army, like many military forces in the post-Cold War world, is ill at ease because of major changes in the balance of power.

China also has particular problems in domestic politics. If the outside world wishes to help influence the Chinese military to make sensible choices, the time has come to lift the Western ban on contacts imposed following the massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing in 1989 and to re-establish normal working relations with the Chinese military.

The military is a major player in the struggle to succeed Deng Xiaoping, China's senior leader. In recent months, it has been in the vanguard of support for Mr. Deng's distinctive mix of increased economic reform and tight political control.

The military now calls itself the "armed escort of reform." It sees economic growth as the way to enhance professionalism, increase defense spending and obtain more hardware.

Pursuit of professionalism is leading to remarkable changes in the structure of the military. Lack of contact between Western military personnel and their Chinese counterparts means that not enough is known about these changes.

Even Taiwanese officials acknowledge that about 45 percent of the Chinese military is now in strategic reserves, while most of the remainder forms rapid reaction units. These units are intended to cope with various smaller or more regional threats, for example in Central Asia. Parallel with the changes in the People's Liberation Army is a trend to regionalism in China's economic policy and the recent development by the military of tactical nuclear weapons.

The cutoff of Western military contacts has encouraged China to rapidly expand relations with Russia. China has been taking delivery of 24 advanced SU-27 jet fighters bought from Russia, and may be negotiating for 48 more. The initial order will be based in Shanghai and rotated through Hainan Island near the South China Sea. China will thus extend the reach of its airpower over this zone, although the range of the aircraft is limited and only the acquisition of in-flight refueling equipment will make a significant military difference.

Far too much weight has been given to Chinese interest in the Varyag, an aircraft carrier being built in a Ukrainian shipyard. Beijing may buy the ship for investigation and scrap, much as it bought an obsolete carrier from Australia some years ago. But China is far from having the ability to equip the Varyag, let alone acquire the aircraft and smaller ships needed to put an effective fighting force to sea.

But the absence of Western contacts with the Chinese armed forces has allowed speculation to run riot. Such contacts also would help unravel the extent of Chinese contacts with the Russian defense industry. Beijing is trying to entice Russian scientists to work in China. Discussions are underway about coproduction of some weapons, among them the Yak-141, a very short takeoff and landing plane that might eventually be placed on a Chinese aircraft carrier. Some sources suggest that Chinese and Russian officials are considering coproduction of follow-on models of the Sukhoi and MiG fighter series.

The choices that China and the People's Liberation Army make about defense policy will have far reaching implications for security in Asia and the Pacific. Thus, there is a strong case for reopening a dialogue with the Chinese military, especially to encourage it to support economic reform at home. At a minimum, such contacts would help the West learn far more about Chinese defense doctrine. The West also would be in a better position to try to engage China in confidence-building measures that enhance transparency.

Of course, it will be distasteful for the West to normalize relations with the armed forces that carried out the Beijing massacre. But similar contacts with the Warsaw Pact states were part of the effort that helped to defeat communism in Europe.

The writer is a senior fellow at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and editor of The Pacific Review. He contributed this to the International Herald Tribune.

East Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
22nd Submarine Flotilla

42nd Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
Destroyers 8
Sovremenny Class 4
Luda Class 4
Frigates 27
Jiangkai Class 4
Jiangwei Class 10

3rd Destroyer Flotilla
DDG-137″Fu Zhou”,
FFG-525″Ma Anshan”,

6th Destroyer Flotilla
FFG-522″Lian Yungang”
5th Landing Ship Flotilla
2nd Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
1st Corvette Flotilla
16th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla
21st Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
4th Naval Air Division

6th Naval Air Division

4th Independent Air Regiment

Coastal Defence Forces
2nd Radar Brigade
13th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regiment
Electronic Warfare Regiment

Major Bases
Zhoushan Support Base
Fujian Support Base
Shanghai Support Base
Xiamen Naval Garrison

IAF Red Flag

Friday, November 21, 2008

Quan-Sheng Shu,

Quan-Sheng Shu

Chinese-American scientist Quan-Sheng Shu, shown in a file photo, pleaded guilty Nov. 17, 2008, to passing on rocket technology to the Chinese government and bribing Chinese officials. (Adrin Snider, Daily Press / December 6, 2002)

Spy rocket system


WASHINGTON – A physicist in Newport News, Va., has pleaded guilty today to charges that he illegally exported space launch technical data and defense services to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and offered bribes to Chinese government officials.

The guilty plea was announced today by Dana Boente, Acting U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia; Patrick Rowan, Assistant Attorney General for National Security; Matthew Friedrich, Acting Assistant Attorney General of the Criminal Division; Arthur M. Cummings, II, Executive Assistant Director, FBI National Security Branch; and Alex J. Turner, Special Agent-in-Charge, FBI Norfolk Division.

Shu Quan-Sheng (Shu), 68, a native of China, naturalized U.S. citizen and Ph.D. physicist, entered his plea before Judge Henry C. Morgan, Jr. in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division. Shu is the President, Secretary and Treasurer of AMAC International Inc., (AMAC), a high-tech company based in Newport News and that has offices in Beijing.

Shu pleaded guilty to a three-count criminal information. Count one alleges that from January 2003 through October 2007, Shu violated the Arms Export Control Act by willfully exporting a defense service from the United States to the PRC without first obtaining the required export license or written approval from the State Department. Specifically, the information alleges that Shu provided the PRC with assistance in the design and development of a cryogenic fueling system for space launch vehicles to be used at the heavy payload launch facility located in the southern island province of Hainan, PRC.

The space launch facility at Hainan will house liquid-propelled heavy payload launch vehicles designed to send space stations and satellites into orbit, as well as provide support for manned space flight and future lunar missions, according to a criminal complaint filed in the case. Among those PRC government entities involved in the Hainan facility are the People's Liberation Army's General Armaments Department and the 101st Research Institute (101 Institute), which is one of many research institutes that make up the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, as overseen by the Commission of Science Technology and Industry for the National Defense, according to the criminal complaint.

Count two of the criminal information alleges that on Dec. 20, 2003, Shu violated the Arms Export Control Act by willfully exporting a defense article to the PRC without first obtaining the required export license or written approval from the State Department. Specifically, the information alleges that Shu illegally exported to the PRC controlled military technical data contained in a document entitled “Commercial Information, Technical Proposal and Budgetary Officer – Design, Supply, Engineering, Fabrication, Testing & Commissioning of 100m3 Liquid Hydrogen Tank and Various Special Cryogenic Pumps, Valves, Filters and Instruments.”

Count three of the criminal information alleges that Shu offered, paid, promised and authorized the payment of bribes to Chinese government officials to influence their decisions and secure an improper advantage, in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Specifically, Shu, acting on behalf of his company, AMAC, and a French company he represented, offered to pay money to foreign officials of the PRC’s 101 Institute to obtain a contract for the development of a 600 liter per hour liquid hydrogen tank system, according to the information.

The criminal information indicates that Shu offered money on three occasions to three PRC officials with the 101 Institute to secure the contract. In February 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth approximately $56,800. In April 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth some $56,800, and in May 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth approximately $75,700, for a total of $189,300, according to the criminal information. In January 2007, the $4 million hydrogen liquefier project was awarded to the French company that Shu represented.

Sentencing in this matter is scheduled for April 6, 2009, where Shu faces a possible maximum sentence of 10 years in prison and a fine of $1,000,000 for each violation of the Arms Export Control Act, and a possible maximum sentence of five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 or twice the gross gain for violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

This investigation was conducted by the FBI, with assistance from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Export Enforcement.

The prosecution is being handled Assistant U.S. Attorney Alan M. Salsbury from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia and Assistant Chief Robertson Park from the Criminal Division’s Fraud Section.. The Counterespionage Section of the Justice Department’s National Security Division provided critical assistance.

"Shu admitted to a lengthy set of facts, laid out in a 20-page statement detailing his four years of negotiations with the Chinese, with the help of an unidentified French company, for the design and development of a cryogenic liquid hydrogen rocket system.

PRC Missile and Space Forces

Monday, November 17, 2008

South Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
Type 093 2 Nuclear-Powered Submarines
19 Diesel-Electric Submarines
2nd (Nuclear) Submarine Base
32nd Submarine Flotilla

72nd Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
17 Frigates
2nd Destroyer Flotilla

9th Destroyer Flotilla

6th Landing Ship Flotilla

3rd Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
11th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla
26th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
8th Naval Air Division

9th Naval Air Division

7th Independent Air Regiment

Coastal Defence Forces
2nd Observation Brigade
3rd Radar Brigade
46th Shore-to-Ship Missile Battalion

Marine Corps
1st Marine Brigade
164th Marine Brigade

Office of Naval Intelligence China's Navy 2007

aircraft carrier

Aircraft carrier
The US navy has 11 aircraft carrier groups Photo: PA

Major General Qian Lihua, a senior official with the ministry of defence, seemed to accept speculation that China was planning to build an aircraft carrier, though he would not confirm when it might be launched.

"The question is not whether you have an aircraft carrier, but what you do with your aircraft carrier," he said.

But he said a carrier fleet would only be used for defence, unlike that of "another country".

"Navies of great powers with more than 10 aircraft carrier battle groups with strategic military objectives have a different purpose from countries with only one or two carriers used for offshore defence," he said.

"Even if one day we have an aircraft carrier, unlike another country, we will not use it to pursue global deployment or global reach." China has issued repeated hints that it is planning to build an aircraft carrier in recent years, and according to Jane's Defence Weekly recently began training 50 pilots for fixed-wing carrier-based aircraft.

But after initial plans were aborted in the 1990s, projected dates for a carrier group taking to the high seas remain unclear. A South Korean newspaper earlier this year reported that a mid-sized carrier was due to be completed by 2010, and a large nuclear-powered one by 2020.

Other analysts say China may already be working on three carriers, but say none is likely to be operational before 2015.

China's main naval priority is to deter American intervention in any conflict over Taiwan. One reason why the country has not yet developed an aircraft carrier fleet, unlike regional rivals like India, is said to be a desire to balance Washington's concern at its rapidly increasing submarine fleet, targeted at American battle groups.

The United States navy has 11 aircraft carrier groups deployed around the world, including one based in Japan.

But this balance may not last much longer, despite warming ties between Beijing and Taiwan.

"The navy of any great power has the dream to have one or more aircraft carriers," Maj Gen Qian said in the interview with The Financial Times.

Sunday, November 16, 2008

YUZHOU Class Amphibious Transport Dock in SSF

6th landing Ship Flotilla of PLA Navy South Sea Fleet

3rd Combat Support Ship Flotilla of PLA South Sea Fleet (2)

translation: Chinese » English

Kunlun Mountains in the South China Sea Fleet dock landing ship coming out for the first time exercise

Daily on November 14: gallop warships at sea, the eagles circling in the air. In early November, the South China Sea Fleet ships to support the organization, landing craft, destroyers, frigates, ship-borne helicopters, for the first time in the waters near the Nansha Islands to carry out a comprehensive operational training support. The success of their organizations, "a vertical cross" on the sea supply training at the same time, the drill ship-borne helicopters taking off and landing, hovering, reconnaissance, rescue simulation, and other subjects, so that the ability to ship machines coordination has been enhanced.

Attached Image Attached Image Attached Image Attached Image

Friday, November 14, 2008

Nanjing Military Region

Nanjing Military Region Air Force

3 Ind REGT 3 Fighter DIV 10 Bomber DIV 14 Fighter DIV
26 Fighter DIV 28 Attack DIV 29 Fighter DIV

Nanjing Military Region
22 Group Army 29 Group Army 60 Group Army
1 Group Army 12 Group Army 31 Group Army Shanghai Garrison
U/I Motorized Infantry BDE 179 Motorized Infantry BDE U/I Armored BDE
1 Amph Mechanized Infantry DIV 34 Motorized Infantry BDE 86 Infantry DIV
U/I Armored DIV 2 Armored DIV 91 Motorized Infantry DIV

36th DIV


Thursday, November 13, 2008

F-10 carrier-based aircraft? Yes 2008年11月09日 11:54 大洋网-广州日报





  能与这些空军飞行员面对面,众多观众抓住机会轮翻抛出自己关心的问题,当雷强等人回答每一个问题时都引起现场观众阵阵欢呼。第 一个观众问的是大家都非常关心的歼-10发动机问题。雷强告诉大家,昨日观众们看到的航展歼-10飞机装配的是俄罗斯RS31F发动机,而我们自己的发动 机现在正在试飞,已经装在歼-10飞机上了。从总的数据讲,我们太行发动机比俄罗斯的还好,推力比它的大了700公斤。






   许多观众都把歼-10与苏27对比。苏27的招牌表演动作是“眼镜蛇”,歼-10也能表演,而且比它有更好的操控性。雷强介绍说:“它(指苏 27)做“眼镜蛇”动作完全是靠速度来控制它的角度,速度小了,角度就小,但歼-10飞机可以由飞行员控制角度,我想让它多大,就可以飞到多大。”


People's Liberation Army Air Force to become a comprehensive exhibition of this show is a major bright spot, the first air show appearance of f-10, the new Flying Leopard fighter-the-art, and so is more dazzling star. At noon yesterday, just finished some of the air show pilots in the Air Force Air Show at the scene and zero distance to meet the audience. In response to audience questions, f-10 Leiqiang first test pilot Colonel said F-10 SU -27, Su also show signs of movements "Cobra", and performing more beautiful! f-10 have been made with the use of the engine.

More than pilot class debut

F10 Participate in the meet will be the maiden flight of the test pilot, the special-class pilot, Colonel Lei Qiang, just yesterday, driving F-10 class flight back to the ground pilot Colonel Yan Feng. In addition, the oil boom six special-class pilot, Lu Yongjun, J-8D pilot Bin Jia, seven class pilot Ding Min, 93 straight pilot HAN Jin Yu

Air Force pilots to face-to-face with these, a large number of viewers to seize the opportunity to round out their concern over the issue, when Lei Qiang and others to answer every question the audience are caused by bursts of cheers. The first asked the audience is all of great concern to f-10 engine problems. Lei Qiang tell you that yesterday the audience to see the air show F -10 aircraft assembled in Russia RS31F engine, and our own engine test now, has been installed in the F -10 aircraft. From the total data, we Taihang engine better than in Russia, its major thrust than the 700 kg.

F-10 to fully demonstrate China's own property rights

Viewers are asked to drive F-10 feeling is that what, Yan Feng, said: "As a pilot f-10 , not only the pride of our pilot ranks, but also our nation's proud aviation industry, we are the pride of Chinese people . "

Then, a loud audience and asked: Are there any F-10 carrier-based aircraft? Yan Feng said: "I believe the near future, we will soon see our aircraft."

Just do the action, the most difficult techniques, the best performance of the advanced performance of F-10 F to which it is? "

"We made this action has been taken into account when people want to demonstrate in front of the full f-10 fighter's mobility. We have just seen, the performance of several moves the short-range f-10 -off and landing capabilities, wide-angle rise Capacity, the level of mobility, the asymmetric mobility, vertical mobility, as well as a broad flight speed envelope. "

Many viewers have f -10 su-27 and Su-contrast. Su-27 show signs of the action is "Cobra",f -10 can be performed, but it is better than manipulative. Lei Qiang said: "It (referring to the Soviet Union 27)" Cobra "entirely depends on the speed of action to control its point of view, the speed of a small, the point of view on the small, but the F -10 aircraft can be controlled by the pilot point of view, I want it How can fly much. "

J-10 Vertical Climb At Takeoff - J-10 beats F-22 Raptor

China boosts Troops on N. Korea Border
by Michael Ha

Staff Reporter

The Financial Times in Britain reported that the number of Chinese soldiers guarding the border has gone up since September amid ``mounting concerns about the health of Kim Jong-il."

Citing unnamed U.S. officials, the report said ``the People's Liberation Army (of China) has stationed more soldiers on the border to prepare for any possible influx of refugees due to instability or regime change in North Korea."
It said the increase in Chinese troops was not ``dramatic." But in addition to more soldiers, the Chinese military is also constructing more fences and installations at key border outposts, according to the report.
It said American and South Korean spy agencies believe Kim indeed suffered a stroke in August and that it affected the left side of his body.

The report said there are concerns about how long Kim can hold on to power if he is partially paralyzed.
Some reports said there may be a shift in power taking place in Pyongyang. This week, news reports speculated Kim's brother-in-law, Jang Song-taek, is consolidating power.
Some analysts said Jang is effectively standing in for Kim. They said he may now be in charge of receiving orders from Kim and relaying them to senior officials.

Jang reportedly has powerful allies and contacts within the ruling Workers' Party and the military. That could make him the second most powerful figure in Pyongyang and serve as a stand-in for Kim.
But analysts are quick to add it doesn't mean Jang is in line or being groomed to take over leadership. They said there are many questions about Kim's health and the regime's future.

North Korea is also taking a harder line against the South. On Wednesday, the North Korean military threatened to close its border with the South beginning in December. It accused the South of heightening tension between the two sides.
If North Korea goes ahead and closes the border, it could cut off road and rail routes between Seoul and the inter-Korean industrial complex in the North Korean border city of Gaeseong, North Korea watchers say.

China increases troops on North Korea border
By Demetri Sevastopulo in Washington and Song Jung-a in Seoul

Published: November 13 2008 00:25 | Last updated: November 13 2008 00:25

The Chinese military has boosted troop numbers along the border with North Korea since September amid mounting concerns about the health of Kim Jong-il, the North Korean leader, according to US officials.

Beijing has declined to discuss contingency plans with Washington, but the US officials said the Peoples’ Liberation Army has stationed more soldiers on the border to prepare for any possible influx of refugees due to instability, or regime change, in North Korea.

US and South Korean intelligence agencies believe Mr Kim suffered a stroke in August that has left him paralysed on his left side, possibly severely enough to prevent him from walking. While the US believes Mr Kim remains in control for now, there are growing concerns about how long he can hold on to power if paralysed.

One official cautioned that the increase in Chinese troops was not “dramatic”, but he said China was also constructing more fences and installations at key border outposts. Wang Baodong, the Chinese embassy spokesman in Washington, said he was unaware of any increased deployments.

Speculation about the North Korean leader’s health has mounted since September when he failed to appear at a key military parade to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the repressive communist state. In an attempt to downplay concerns, state-run media released photos of Mr Kim visiting soldiers, but the CIA believes most of the images were either taken before the stroke, or have been altered with software.

US officials believe, however, that one recent photograph of Mr Kim – purportedly watching a football match from the stands of a stadium – appears authentic. But they say the fact that Mr Kim is sitting, with his left arm dangling, reinforces the conclusion that he is paralysed and having difficulty walking. The US believes North Korea would release video footage of Mr Kim to eliminate speculation about his health if that were possible.

The increased Chinese military presence and concerns about the health of the Stalinist leader come as international efforts to convince Pyongyang to abandon its nuclear programme run into obstacles that threaten to derail what President George W. Bush hoped would be a foreign-policy success.

In a ominous sign for the six-party talks, North Korea on Wednesday said international inspectors would not be allowed to take samples from its nuclear complex at Yongbyon. It added that it had slowed down the disablement of its nuclear reactor.

Mr Bush last month removed North Korea from the US terrorism list after Pyongyang agreed to allow inspectors into the country to verify a nuclear declaration it made earlier this year. Critics had previously warned that the vague language of the agreement would allow North Korea to escape from the commitment.

While the US previously insisted that North Korea had agreed to allow inspectors to take samples – to determine how much plutonium has been processed for nuclear weapons – Pyongyang on Wednesday rejected calls for sampling, saying the move would breach its sovereignty.

The dispute has complicated efforts by the six-party members – which include Japan, China, South Korea and China – from convening a meeting to finalise the details of the verification mechanism. One senior US official said North Korea was resisting efforts to have verification system formalised in a six-party document.

“The issue is not sampling, the issue is how to express it in a document that doesn’t involve their loss of face,” said a second senior official.

“The more serious problems going on in the six party talks have nothing to do with [sampling] but rather the continued bad North/South relations and the lack of a diplomatic process with the Japanese,” added the official. “Probably, there are also leadership problems in North Korea that are having an impact on decision making there.”

Japan opposed the US decision to remove North Korea from the terrorism list because it believed the move would reduce pressure on Pyongyang to resolve a dispute about Japanese citizens abducted over several decades by North Korean spies.

Washington has urged North Korea to fulfil a pledge to reopen an investigation into the abductees. But one Japanese source said there had been no progress on the issue, saying the “ball is in [Pyongyang’s] court”.

In another sign of deteriorating relations with North Korea, Pyongyang on Wednesday announced it would close its heavily fortified land border with South Korea from December. Tensions between the North and South have increased under President Lee Myung-bak, who pledged to take a tougher stance on North Korea than his predecessors and to link aid to progress in denuclearisation efforts.

One US official said North Korea was becoming increasingly bellicose towards South Korea because the decision by Seoul to cut off food aid was starting to impact the North Korean military, a key constituency for Mr Kim.

Two weeks ago, Pyongyang threatened to reduce the South to “debris” if Seoul did not stop anti-communist groups from launching pamphlets by balloon over the border. The leaflets contain statements about the health of Mr Kim, which North Korea cannot rebut because of the leader’s illness.

“The South Korean puppet authorities should never forget that the present inter-Korean relations are at the crucial crossroads of existence and total severance,” the North Korean news agency said in a statement.

Kim Ho-nyeon, spokesman for Seoul’s Unification Ministry, called the move “regrettable”, saying it would have a negative impact on efforts to improve inter-Korean relations. He urged the North to come back to the negotiating table to discuss implementing previous inter-Korean agreements from a “realistic” perspective.

A move by the South’s National Human Rights Commission this week to form a special committee on human rights in the North likely raised Pyongyang’s hackles after years of southern downplaying of reports of atrocities.

Copyright The Financial Times Limited 2008

New Frigate in Huangpu Shipyard Type 054

IPB Image

IPB Image

IPB Image

Wednesday, November 12, 2008

Tuesday, November 11, 2008

chinese J-10 first demonstration

J-10 china airshow 2008

Guided Rocket SY-400

chinese Space Station

chinese Lunar

Q-7 stealth attack plane XXJ Q-7 PIC???

IPB Image

The Google translation
Q-7 stealth attack plane: Q -7 is China's upcoming project developed a new generation of close support attack aircraft, using stealth design, equipment from a 624-developed YWH-30-27 core of the development of derivatives Xiao Han, than non-augmented turbofan engines WS-18, the biggest thrust 10000-11000 kilograms, have a certain supersonic cruise capacity. The aircraft will gradually replace our Q-5.

China 5th Generation Fighter XXJ J-16 PIc????

The image “” cannot be displayed, because it contains errors.

The Google translation

Prospect of a Chinese fighter plane development

<3>: f-16 -medium-sized fourth-generation supersonic fighter planes take off and land vertically short-range: from f-16 -611 research and development. Development of the plane from Russia's Jacques -141 aircraft. Use of stealth aircraft design, with transonic, supersonic cruise capacity. Can be on multiple targets simultaneously over-the-horizon attacks, the enforceability of the sea and空等a variety of tasks, the main cruise engine aircraft for a WS-17, the plane will be mainly naval air force equipment, used equipment Navy amphibious Gong Jijian in the plan or at Nansha, Xisha Islands airport, I support Marine Corps operations.

This is the Google translation of JZ-16's Post # 431, above:

Prospect of a Chinese fighter plane development 2005年07月08日17:51 Source: China Network

China Flying Leopard

1: improving the generation of production

China is now the main production / improve the generation of combat aircraft: the F----8 B / C / D / F / H, F-11, F--11 B; fly the F-10% -7 G, F-10, F-- 10 combatants / Trainer; West fly the F-H--7, the F-H--7 A, such as the new Hong -6. Among them, F--8 B / C / D / F / H by China's self-developed integrated fire control system, and equipped with the Institute of China in the new WP-13B / F engine, which had F-16A / B and Mirage-2000 -5 To match the strength of the Air Force recently I was more mature and practical fighter, the F--11 B is the introduction of China's Su-27 production technology on the basis of innovation and development of the national production of the F--11. The aircraft in the SU-27CK aircraft on the basis of maintaining the original layout and function of the overall system performance the same, but the engine installed domestic WS-10 engine, fire control radar installed a 1474 domestic-type radar, and can be linked to increases in domestic PL-12 missile and other weapons. F-11 B and Su -27 CK compared to the weight of the aircraft, flight performance, body life, and so is essentially the same, the development of this aircraft, mainly to annihilate the middle of -11 to raise my arms Air Force Operational Readiness rates and reduce the dependence on Russia. The aircraft was on December 6, 2003 maiden flight in 2005 stereotypes operation. Shenyang 601 also intend to annihilate -11 B on the basis of further improving the development of the F--11 multi-purpose type, the F-model estimate is -11 C. Flying the F-10% -7 G is the F--7 E further improved, mainly to improve fire control system, equipped with a helmet sights, fighting at close range, on a higher level, to equip our troops in 2004; -10 F-2004 In August to equip our troops. Development of the aircraft after 20 years, performance and F-16C / D is one of my Air Force in 2020 before the main battle fighter. The aircraft with a WS-10 engine and equipped with fire control radar-1473. The aircraft's fire control system is China's self-developed advanced integrated fire control system. The aircraft is the further development of the two-seat F-fighting -10 / trainer, was the maiden flight in December 2003; West fly the F-H--7 A is now equipped forces, and precision strike capability over the Soviet Union - 30MKK2, the Two fully-equipped with the localization of WS-9; has been further improved in the planning, namely the F-H--7 B. -7 B F-H-tied by two-seat cockpit and to install navigation / bombing system, the computer running weapons to attack radar, terrain tracking radar and radar altimeter, will be developed into a new medium-range supersonic strategic bomber; new H - -6 Is now in production, with its combat effectiveness has been Russia's plans -95 and -26 map "goes against the fire" almost, I become the Air Force recently backbone of strategic offensive forces.

2: Development of generation

China is currently developing generation of combat aircraft is the F--13 stealth fighter. -13 F in the "9th Five-Year" Development project started late. State upfront investment of more than 80 million, from 611 organizations developed, the following is the F--10, another major national organizations developed special projects. Stealth aircraft using a variety of materials and technology to the direction of head-on radar cross-sectional area (RCS) reduced to 0.5 m 2, its enemy radar detection range will be halved. From the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of electromagnetic theory and application of research to organize a scientific team to -13 F in the inlet and engine compressor blade surface spray on a layer of ferromagnetic radar absorbing materials. One of the thickness of 0. 7 MM and 1. 4 MM coating material for the inlet; a 0. 5 MM of coating material used for pre-level low pressure compressor blades. These measures will enable the F-13 inlet to reduce radar reflection 10-15 DB; To Stealth, the F--13 also covered the cockpit has improved, the development staff have developed a plasma deposition process, the plasma deposition to Metal and polymer materials in the dissection. The wave shield in the cockpit, at the same time not affect the sunlight to enter. -13 Annihilation of the power plant is a 624-developed WS-10A engine, the biggest thrust to 14,000 kilograms, pushing quality than the nearly 9, the engine of the series for seven and a vector axisymmetric nozzle. The engine of the core test was completed in 2004, the F--13 demonstration prototype was started in 2004 to fly into the General Armament Department, 2008-2010, is expected to serve. It will use more advanced integrated avionics systems, fire control radar for 1475 Active Phased array radar, is China's fourth-generation fighter is a feature of the quasi-four generations of medium-sized fighters. My standard is a fourth-generation fighter aircraft, F-22 to F-35 and the threat of weapons.

3: The generation of pre-inquest

Since the 1990s, the world's military hegemony in the country and the fourth-generation fighter-bombers, such as the F-22, F-35, B-2, and so on. One fourth-generation fighters have the following characteristics: ① supersonic flight, the largest flight speed greater than (or equal to) 1.8 M, ② supersonic cruise: that is, not open Afterburner can fly more than 1.5 M, ③ minimum-altitude high-speed sprint, ④ off Stall mobility, ⑤ long hours at low altitude blank, ⑥ blank high-altitude long time, ⑦ major combat radius, ⑧ short-range vertical take off and land, ⑨ stealth, and so on, these characteristics, a fourth-generation fighter is not possible to have both, plus Fighters on the cost of growing, which requires different tactics need to have a choice to use some new technologies, so that the different aircraft for different combat skills requirements in order to find the best benefit-cost ratio of the equipment system. For example, with aircraft development costs, a fourth-generation fighter aircraft heavy use of costly equipment can not be universal, must complement the development with a relatively low-grade medium-sized fourth-generation fighters, to form with the high-end equipment System. This is now the United States and Russia, and other major countries of the equipment used by the Air Force system. In China, because the level of economic development is also limited, as the United States as it is impossible to come up with large amounts of funds, fully equipped for heavy and medium-sized fourth-generation fighters, but our air defense operations, but it also needs large number of fighter planes, making China's Air Force and Air According to China's industrial sector-specific national conditions and the military with Chinese characteristics by the equipment system: the Air Force fighter on the points system with high, medium and low with third gear; ground attack aircraft by far, in the near-attack planes, fighter-bombers and Strategic bombers with third gear. In the fourth-generation fighter development, I aviation industry sector according to the Air Force's equipment system, after a long-term pre-research, the forthcoming project, focusing on research and development following fighters: F--14 heavy fighter, the F--15 medium-sized fighter, the F-medium -16 Seattle vertical / short-range fighter planes taking off and landing, the F--17 light multi-purpose fighter, the F-H--8 fighter-bombers, strategic bombers and bombers -9, strong -7 stealth attack planes.

<1>: F-14 -heavy fourth-generation fighter aircraft: the F--14 from 601 research and development, adopted by the two 624-developed YWH-30-27-derived core of the development of the engine thrust WS-17, pushing quality than 10 , The largest engine thrust 17,500 kg, a vector axisymmetric nozzle, aircraft appearance as a YF-23, stealth aircraft has better performance, RCS is 0.15 m 2, has excellent Asia, the Sonics aerodynamic performance, Can not open a long time to Afterburner supersonic cruise and good subsonic and supersonic motor; far greater, in the short-range air combat capability, carrying advanced to the attacks against multiple targets after launch whether the air-to Long-distance air missile, the anti-drive off-axis launch angle of the disturbing close grapple missiles, high power-to-ground precision-guided weapons, and so have high-performance integrated avionics systems, integration of information within and outside the plane, with the most concise Forms available to the pilot states pose information, give full play to the role of pilots and intelligence support to achieve flight.

<2>: F-15 -medium-sized fourth-generation fighter aircraft: the F--15 from 601 research and development, adopted by the two 624-developed YWH-20-13-derived core of the development of high-Thrust-Weight than medium-sized engine WS-15, Thrust-Weight Ratio 10, a single thrust 9,500 kg.

<3>:F -16 -medium-sized fourth-generation supersonic fighter planes take off and land vertically short-range: from -16 F-611 research and development. Development of the plane from Russia's Jacques -141 aircraft. Use of stealth aircraft design, with transonic, supersonic cruise capacity. Can be on multiple targets simultaneously over-the-horizon attacks, the enforceability of the sea and空等a variety of tasks, the main cruise engine aircraft for a WS-17, the plane will be mainly naval air force equipment, used equipment Navy amphibious Gong Jijian in the plan or at Nansha, Xisha Islands airport, I support Marine Corps operations.

<4> F-17 -light fourth-generation multi-purpose fighter aircraft: The aircraft is equipped with two sets of WS-14 light engine, is my air, and naval equipment will be a large number of low-grade fourth-generation fighter aircraft.

<5>- -7 stealth attack plane: strong -7 is China's upcoming project developed a new generation of close support attack aircraft, using stealth design, equipment from a 624-developed YWH-30-27 core of the development of derivatives Xiao Han, than non-augmented turbofan engines WS-18, the biggest thrust 10000-11000 kilograms, have a certain supersonic cruise capacity. The aircraft will gradually replace our strong -5.

<6> F-H--8 fighter-bomber: F-H-UTF-8 is China will develop a new generation of fighter-bombers. It developed a reference to the Russian Su -34, is in China's Jian-10 - 11 on the basis of innovation and development of its own. But the aircraft and Su--34 difference is that the use of stealth design. The aircraft maximum range 7,000 km, the engine is used by two 624-developed YWH-25-17-derived core of the development of a larger push than 9 thrust engine WS-16, the largest single thrust 14,000 kg, containing shells It amounted to more than 10 tons.

<7> Hong -9 strategic bombers: H-9 in 95 pre-research project started. No air refueling aircraft in the circumstances, can range over 8,000 kilometers, air refueling in flight over 12,000 kilometers. The aircraft cruising speed up to 2 M, penetration speed of more than 4 M, Zaidan Liang 20 tons -40 tons. The stealth aircraft is also available in better performance. The engine is four by 624 developed YWH-30-27-derived core of the development of thrust, pushing the engine than the 10 level WS-19, the largest thrust to 18,700 kg.

F -14, F--15, F-16, F--17, strong -7, the F-H-8, H--9 will be completed in 2020 developed and equipped forces, the Air Force I and equipment reach the world's advanced level.

4: to explore generation

2005, the United States fourth-generation F/A-22 fighter service, making the world jet fighters entered the fourth generation. At the same time, the United States, Russia and other countries have begun to pre-research-track with little room for the combat capability of the characteristics of the atmosphere 4 S cruise fifth-generation fighter aircraft. Air China's industrial sector to face grim situation, "passion ahead, beyond-in" the spirit to the spirit of pragmatism, according to the actual level of China's aviation industry, beginning in 2000 after a fifth-generation fighter aircraft near the level of four generations of fighter aircraft after the Pre-research and exploration, with a view through four generations of fighter aircraft after the pre-research and development, for further development after the fifth-generation fighters to lay a solid foundation.

China's fourth generation of fighter planes will be after more information, intelligence, integrated generation of fighters. They are both a combat carrier, is also an information carrier. At the same time, they're an information contact. On the one hand, they can find themselves targets of the enemy reached the real-time network for the entire system to provide effective against the decision-making based on the other hand can also access the Internet, any information they need to maximize the playing its due Combat effectiveness. After China's fourth generation fighter, both in the traditional sense of air, take the conventional air combat missions and the implementation of the operations, and can cruise at the edge of the atmosphere, on selected targets, a precision strike. They supersonic cruise speed of 2. 0 M-2. 5 M, and the engine is started in China in 2000 to implement the plan developed by ATEKT than 12-15 pushing the engine, according to the literature, is likely to be pushed than 15 engine . They pre-research models are the F--18, F--19, -20 F, F--21. Among them, F-40 and -18 are after heavy fighters, from the pre-research programme, will use stealth better performance with the end of the layout, shape a bit like the United States Xiamaguan the A-12, F-40 and -19 for the following medium-fighters, the F - -20 For four generations after the supersonic medium-sized vertical / short-range fighter planes taking off and landing, the F--21 empty, the Navy General after four generations of light fighters, they will be served in 2030-2035, prior to the 2050 Development of China's Fifth Generation Lay the foundation for the fighter.

As for the ground attack plane, supersonic track is currently exploring strategic bombers. So far this regard long-term planning and 863-2 included in the plan, after 20-30 years of development, it is estimated that in 2035 about the successful development and to equip our troops. Fighter-bombers, F-H--8 from the start will be taken from the heavy fighter modified on the basis of the development of methods, the development of new fighter-bomber. For example, to -14 F-F-H-based R & D -14, and -18 to annihilate the basis for the development of the F-bombers, such as -18, so that cost-effective, tactical bombing that I can get the new machines, and continually enhance China's Air strike capability. U.S. FB-22 plans and Russia's SU-34 that the development of the future fighter-bomber approach to development direction.

Through these "four generations," continued, the development by leaps and bounds, I will air combat equipment into multi-generation co-exist, high, middle and end of file with the situation so that I air forces in the country and world hegemony strong dialogue , To "excellent system to gifted."



This is the real face of Taihang (WS-10) Turbofan Engine!

Zhuhai, Nov.04 (China Defense Mashup Report) — Today Chinese Aero-Engine Manufacturer firstly opens the real face of Taihang (WS-10) Turbofan Engine in 2008 Zhuhai Airshow. From the picture, it can be seen that WS-10 is different with Russia’s AL-31F engine. In 2006 Zhuhai Airshow, a picture of WS-10 engine was once displayed in exhibition hall but removed later.

My Analysing Article About Taihang ( WS-10) Enginem, which was written in 2006