Sunday, July 25, 2010
Thursday, July 8, 2010
First Look: PLA Navy Live Fire Exercises in East China Sea
DefenseTech.org ^ | July 7, 2010 | posted by Greg Grant
Posted on Thursday, July 08, 2010 4:31:00 AM by hamboy
Wednesday, June 30, 2010
Five things you need to know about one of the world's most dangerous places.
TAIPEI, Taiwan — It's a 3.5 million-square kilometer stretch of ocean, speckled with some 200 coral atolls, some submerged or so tiny they hardly deserve to be called islands.
Welcome to the South China Sea, an obscure patch of global real estate that you're likely to hear more about in coming years.
Six Asian countries have long had competing — at times comical — claims to various islands here, sending token military forces to occupy barren rocks at great expense in the name of national pride.
What's new is China's muscle-flexing, which, if trends continue, could make the South China Sea one of Asia's most dangerous flash-points.
Fueling tensions in the sea are untapped oil and natural gas reserves, China's growing strategic interest in protecting sea lanes by which it gets some of its oil, and Beijing's desire to develop a "blue-water" navy capable of projecting power far beyond China's shores.
The U.S. is paying closer attention to the South China Sea, after China reportedly threatened U.S. energy firm ExxonMobil with retaliation if it continued oil exploration off Vietnam in waters China considers its own. And last year Chinese military vessels harassed U.S. surveillance ships in the sea.
Earlier this month, U.S. Defense Secretary Robert Gates made what's believed to be the highest-level public U.S. remarks to date on the issue.
"The South China Sea is an area of growing concern," he said at a security forum in Singapore. "This sea is not only vital to those directly bordering it, but to all nations with economic and security interests in Asia."
Gates repeated the U.S.' longstanding policy that it takes no position on conflicting sovereignty claims in the South China Sea.
But he said the U.S. believes "it is essential that stability, freedom of navigation, and free and unhindered economic development be maintained" and that "we object to any effort to intimidate U.S. corporations or those of any nation engaged in legitimate economic activity."
Here's a primer on the issue:
1) Why does America care?
The U.S. objects to any attempts to intimidate American energy companies operating in the South China Sea, which stretches from China all the way south to Indonesia. It also insists on the right of free navigation in international waters, defined, in accordance with customary international law, as any waters beyond 12 nautical miles from a nation's shoreline.
China says its sovereign territorial waters extend 200 miles from its shores, and makes a historical claim to almost all of the South China Sea, according to a backgrounder from the Heritage Foundation. China also says that any ship traversing the sea should first obtain Chinese permission. It has long complained about U.S. intelligence-gathering from spy-planes and spy-ships operating off its coastline.
2) Who else claims territory in the South China Sea?
Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei also claim all or some of the South China Sea. Vietnam and China both claim the Paracels islands (known as the Xisha in Chinese), which China has controlled since a 1974 battle with Vietnam that left 18 dead. The other four countries as well as China and Vietnam also claim some or all of the Spratly Islands (known as the Nansha in Chinese) further south.
China's hold here is more tenuous; a skeleton force occupies nine speck-like islands, while Taiwan holds the largest island Itu Aba (or Taiping island, in Chinese), Vietnam holds 29 islands, the Philippines eight and Malaysia three, according to Michael Richardson, a visiting researcher at the Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, in a recent commentary. More than 70 Vietnamese sailors died in the latest military clash in the Spratlys, with China in 1988.
Saturday, May 29, 2010
Posted on Friday, May 28, 2010 5:44:38 PM by sonofstrangelove
Bruce Lemkin, deputy undersecretary of the Air Force for International Affairs, told a congressional commission last week that China's missile capabilities pose a growing threat to U.S. forces.
“Ballistic missiles are China's primary prompt long-range offensive weapon,” Lemkin told the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.
“They have one of the most active development programs in the world and the largest deployed conventional ballistic missile force of any nation.”
Lemkin said China has more than 1,000 short- and intermediate-range missiles with a variety of ranges, payloads and capabilities currently based in Southeastern China. Specialized warheads on the missiles include runway penetrators, anti-radar seekers and anti-ship payloads designed to threaten large naval vessels such as aircraft carriers.
“Taken together, ballistic missiles and cruise missiles provide China with the dual-pronged capability to strike almost any regional target to include airfields, ports, ships, military bases, logistics nodes, command-and-control facilities and industrial economic centers,” he said. “Chinese military writings also reflect a comprehensive understanding of information operations and their importance in modern conflicts.”
To fight modern wars, China is building its space warfare, anti-satellite weapons and electronic warfare capabilities.
“China is developing a large and diverse array of jammers and anti-satellite weapons to provide the capability to deny situational awareness to foreign military personnel, commanders and civilian leaders,” Lemkin said.
On China’s cyber capabilities, Lemkin said its cyberwarfare efforts are a growing concern.
“It threatens the integrity of military and civilian military information systems around the world in ways that are still not entirely understood,” he said.
Chinese air defense capabilities also are growing with “one of the world's most robust integrated air defense systems.”
Monday, May 24, 2010
World Military Network 2010-05-20 19:46:46
German media, "Rhine Outlook Journal" reports: China will stop production of 99 tanks, because the 05 new tanks coming soon. Type 05 tanks and three generations of semi-99A2 tanks, compared with a qualitative leap. 05 tanks can no longer simply viewed as a tank, but a super-marine attack platform, in addition to tanks, artillery, air defense missiles is also equipped with a precision and non-lethal laser weapons. Comprehensive view of operational performance of this tank at night is preferred, for night operations, but part of the data is unknown.
The article quoted sources from Beijing as saying that 05-style super-tank is the newest main battle tanks of the PLA, have excellent stealth bullet shape, its turret and body are used to strengthen composite armor, bullet-proof improved several times, is People's Liberation Army armored divisions and mechanized infantry division for the next major ground assault force, known as China's Super Marine ace, known as the world's first fourth-generation main battle tanks.
The full heavy battle tanks, 55 tons, length 10 meters when the muzzle forward, vehicle length of 7.6 meters, 3.5 meters wide, 2.37 meters high, the maximum highway speed of 90 km / h, 0 - 32 mph time of 10 seconds clock. People's Liberation Army-style Super 05 main battle tanks, made with a diameter of 152 mm high pressure smoothbore tank gun chamber, equipped with three types of ammunition types are new tail off shell stability, new shaped charge, artillery missiles. Stable tail off shell fired when initial velocity of 1950 m / s, direct distance of 3,200 meters, on the uniform thickness of 900 mm armor piercing more than a muzzle velocity of 1,500 meters when firing HEAT / sec. The gun is equipped with reliable self-loading machine gun rate of fire up to 12 rounds / min. Use of tungsten carbide stabilizing tail off shell, it can breakdown in the 2000 meters distance of 950 mm homogeneous armor, while the use of special alloy penetrators, the same distance of 1,000 mm armor-piercing capability, the gun can launch our newly developed 152-mm artillery self-guided missile, the missile a maximum range of 7.8 km, maximum depth of 900 mm armor, ancillary weapons: 13.8 mm automatic cannon a high shot, [Beitan 800 made]; 8.65 mm machine gun hand tied, [Bei Tan 3500-fat]; shell base 50 rounds; turret on each side 7 92MM smoke launchers.
05 advanced fire control system, with the 5th generation "Eye of Heaven" two-way stability fighter system can accurately high-speed moving target shooting, shooting 99 percent, with independent research and development of night vision, can be irradiated 0.1-8 km objectives, high-definition, 05 of the night fighting capability in the next few years, I am afraid that no one can surpass.
Liberation Army Daily of China reported a new tank night
The evening of September 1, the depths of the Xinjiang Tianshan Military training ground in an armored regiment was enveloped in a vast darkness. "All attention! Implementation of the program by 1." Came the head of the horse in the morning radio instruction. Immediately, the "012" was armored vehicles out of the valley, and began training for night ride synthesis.
At the moment, reporters inside the exposure Zheliang armored vehicles. Car in the huge roar off, the headphones came the soldiers asked each other the words: "Take arms, pay close attention to the prison." Suddenly an armored vehicle of a steep dive, the body suddenly sank, so that's a hit armor , the shock in a cold sweat.
Squad leader's sitting next to Wang Yonggang, said: "Adaptive training is a difficult ride content, and passengers can temper their physical skills and mental qualities, many soldiers carried out the initial training courses, will be dizzy and vomiting." Yuehua Jian, reporters glanced round, found the soldiers and they did.
As night falls, the mountains backward. Recruits suspected of containing a member of the window field of vision, to open the armored cover, immediately came to stop sound: "Caution! Head the 'enemy' aircraft reconnaissance." Sure enough, soon weakened headphone signal, issuing strident voice. "Oh, by 'enemy' strong electromagnetic interference." Co-pilot, communications, hand-century military quickly launched back-frequency electromagnetic interference equipment and networks, to frequency, frequency hopping and other means to quickly communicate with the contact. Next, the pilot light control strictly the use of infrared night vision equipment selection to avoid mobile line of camouflage ... ... well the fight prepared in accordance with regulations.
23:45, some reaching the battle area. Century military shouted: "There is the situation!" Voice hardly ever saw three red, two green signals to the sky made the squad leader Wang Yonggang a determination by the "enemy" chemical attack and interdiction fire. A soldier holding "enemy" Love told the reporter that simple signal indicator, they can encounter the "enemy", said the situation out of all the different signals, signal flares can only assume that showed more than 30 kinds of "enemy" situation, each all gains a complete digital soldiers.
Almost the same time, increased horsepower car, roared like the roar. Wang squad leader orders: "Attention all cars! Wearing gas masks, ready to make fire!" "Da da da ... ..." antiaircraft machine gunner King Division first opened by the fire instructions. For a time, a strong network of cross-fire, and worked in the night sky across the beautiful curve.
Tanks more trenches, climbing hills, accelerating the adoption of a fire block area. A violent jolt, journalists feel internal organs had been kept on turning up, wearing a gas mask breathtaking. Are feeling sad occasion, the radio came the "occupation of the impact of car No. 012 launch position to them." Just at that time soon. "012" car parking instant, containing members of the infantry two-pronged, soon enlivened the field and in the desert. Little effort, and the car on the pretext of the mountain, darkness and camouflage equipment of "hiding" up.
Morning, 4 red flares into the sky, the impact of launch. 1 armored vehicles rushed in the night "enemy" positions. Follow the aircraft conversion, the vehicle commander commands antiaircraft machine gunner while contain "enemy" fire, while using night-vision vehicle, reconnaissance equipment, communication equipment, the implementation of the infantry under the command vehicle; ground commanders are also informed by the process of fighting the battlefield situation , sometimes grouping, before the turn of the cover, sometimes interspersed roundabout, at the point attack, continuous strong blow to break the round after round of defense.
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USA rethinks view of China's next generation XXJ fighter
The USA is revising its assessment of the Chinese advanced fighter, which is known by its US Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) designation of "XXJ". At the same time, Shenyang is developing a multirole version of the J-8II air defence fighter.
Washington sources say the original information provided by the ONI in 1997, showing a design resembling the Boeing F-15 Eagle, has been superseded. The agency predicted the XXJ would be multirole, have stealth features and was expected to enter Chinese air force and navy service by around 2015.
This estimate has been revised to 2010. Both Chinese fighter companies - Chengdu and Shenyang - are thought to be working on advanced combat aircraft concepts.
Indications are that the XXJ will have a canard configuration and be equipped with twin thrust-vectoring engines. The design seems influenced by Sukhoi's advanced concepts such as the Su-37 and forward-swept wing S-37 Berkut, suggesting that Shenyang, which has a link with the Russian manufacturer dating from the early 1990s, is the developer. Combining a foreplane, a tailplane and thrust vectoring enhances manoeuvrability.
Engines are likely to be a version of the Wopen WP15 in the 26,000lb-thrust (115kN) class. Pictures of a large engine equipped with thrust-vectoring nozzles was displayed at last year's Zuhai aerospace show.
The fighter is expected to have a 20,000kg (44,000lb) empty weight and incorporate a fly-by-wire control system similar to that developed by Shenyang and tested in the J-8IIACT programme.
Meanwhile, Shenyang is building a new multirole version of the twin-engined J-8II fighter, reflecting China's doctrinal shift towards offensive capabilities. Creating a new version of a dated design underlines the country's urgency in building up its strike forces.
Taiwanese and US sources say the J-8IIC is a J-8IID development, incorporating the latter's in-flight refuelling system and true, instead of secondary, air-to-ground role.
The aircraft is equipped either with a new Chinese-developed dual mode radar or the Russian Phazotron Zhuk-8II (acquired for the F-811M export fighter). Both have a 70km (38nm) range.
Other likely enhancements include a new electronic warfare system and an upgraded cockpit with multifunction displays, head-up display and the new data-link.
The fighter will be powered by a Wopen WP14 engine developing up to 16,215lb thrust, an improvement on the J-8IID's 14,550lb-thrust WP13A.
Sunday, May 2, 2010
China's 'Project 921'- Men in Space
This is the original, unedited text which was published in 'LaunchSpace', Oct/Nov 1998 Issue.
The Chinese space program in recent years has been punctuated by well-publicized launch failures interrupting strings of unpublicized launch successes, giving rise to the myth that the Chinese space program is one with low reliability and not in the same class as the programs run by other space powers.
Following high-profile launch vehicle failures, the Chinese have had a string of successes since late 1996. In some U.S. political quarters, these successes owe nothing to the Chinese ability to overcome problems, but are simply due to American help in improving the launch vehicles. Such a claim is an insult to the Chinese engineers and designers. Substantial evidence exists to give substance to China's announcements it plans to begin manned space launches in the second half of 1999.
Starting in the 1970s
The Chinese recovered their first Fanhui Shi Weixing (FSW) satellite from orbit Nov. 29, 1975, succeeding at their first recovery attempt. In this they equaled the Russians, who succeeded on their first recovery attempt, Korabl Sputnik 2. It was not until Discoverer 13 that the United States finally succeeded in recovering a satellite from orbit.
The Chinese recovery led to speculation about a manned program, but in reality, the FSWs were akin to scaled-up Discoverer/Corona satellites with reconnaissance as the primary mission. In all, nine FSW-0 satellites were launched and recovered, five FSW-1s were launched with only the last one failing to return to Earth, and three FSW-2 satellites have been launched and recovered.
Clearly, the Chinese have mastered one important procedure for a manned flight. But they weren't planning to fly people into space in the late 1970s. Rather, although interested in a manned space program, they were only doing the basic ground-based research that such a program would require.
China's "Project 921" manned space program
In November 1988, the Chinese propaganda publication China Pictorial included a series of photographs that apparently showed more men undergoing medical tests while dressed in spacesuits rather than simple pressure suits. It looked as if the Chinese manned program was "on" again.
Two years before, the Chinese had revealed plans for a whole family of new launchers derived from the successfully flown CZ-2C, which could place 2.5 tons into a low-Earth orbit, and the CZ-3, capable of lifting 1.5 tons into a geosynchronous transfer orbit.
When reviewing these vehicles for the July/August 1987 issue of the British Space magazine, this writer identified the CZ-2/4L (today's CZ-2E) as being particularly applicable for manned launches: with an 8.8 ton LEO capability, it could place a Soyuz-class space station ferry into orbit.
Over the last few years, details have started to appear concerning Chinese plans to put people into orbit. Known by its code name, "Project 921," the plan includes flying two astronauts aboard a spacecraft bearing many similarities to the Russian Soyuz which, in turn, was similar to some early 1960s Apollo concepts; the launcher will be a man-rated version of the CZ-2E. The Chinese have bought examples of Russian space technology (e.g., a Soyuz-TM life-support system, an androgynous docking unit and a pressure suit as used by cosmonauts), but they are not copying these - they are learning from them and then applying what they learn to their program.
Having a mass of about 8.4 tons, the Chinese spacecraft has two major external differences compared with Soyuz - it has two pairs of solar panels for the generation of onboard power and the forward module is distinctly cylindrical compared to the spheroid on Soyuz. Additionally, it is thought that up to four people could fly inside the Chinese spacecraft.
From the outset, the Project 921 spacecraft will be equipped with an androgynous docking system and an internal transfer tunnel, which the original Soyuz did not carry. This means that early in their program, two Project 921 spacecraft can be docked nose-to-nose and the two crews can move from one craft to another. When the Russians first did this with Soyuz 4/Soyuz 5 in January 1969, they had no transfer tunnel and two cosmonauts had to perform a spacewalk for their transfer. Two docked Chinese craft could act as a small orbital station for a few weeks, as a precursor to a larger, dedicated space station.
One of the launchers proposed in the mid-1980s was a CZ-3/8L, which essentially has become the three-stage CZ-3B but with eight strap-on boosters instead of four. A logical derivative of this concept would have been a CZ-2/8L, without the third stage. The payload capability would be 16 to 17 tons to LEO. This is heavy enough to launch a space station similar in concept to the original Russian Salyuts of the 1970s and early 1980s.
Satellite images have shown a new launch complex has been built at the Jiuquan launch site, one capable of launching larger vehicles than those that have flown from that site to date. Now confirmed by the Chinese, this launch pad is compatible with a planned all-new family of medium/heavy-lift launch vehicles - believed to be using LOX/kerosene in their lower stages rather than the Chinese standard N2O4/UDMH - as well as the existing CZ-2E vehicle. It is this pad that will be used for launches under Project 921.
What can we expect in the near future? Before the end of 1998, the Chinese should have test-flown both the man-rated CZ-2F vehicle and the Project 921 spacecraft without a crew. A second successful test in the first half of 1999 would clear the way for a two-man launch before the end of that year, conveniently tying it in with the 50th anniversary of the communist takeover of China. A nose-to-nose docking of two Project 921 craft should come two years later.
If all goes according to plan, during late 1999 or early 2000 China will become the third nation to launch its own people into orbit.
Phillip Clark has been studying the former-Soviet space program since the late 1960s and the Chinese program since the first launch in 1970. He publishes the monthly Worldwide Satellite Launches.
A FUTURE NEW LAUNCH VEHICLE FAMILY ?
It has been widely reported that the Chinese are building new launch facilities at the Jiuquan launch site and that these will be used in support of a new family of launch vehicles for a manned programme. Since the 1980s the Chinese have admitted that they are working on a Saturn-1 class launch vehicle without giving any real details about the project. On October 31, 1992 the Zhongguo Tongxun She news agency in Hong Kong reported that:-
Relevant sources in China's Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics Industry have disclose that China's first manned space shuttle will be launched from Jiuquan, Gansu.
According to the information, a space centre designed by Chinese engineers alone, is being built 200 km from Jiuquan City and the construction of a 200 km special railway to the centre has begun. The first phase of the project is expected to be completed towards the end of the 1990s.
At present all the technical officials concerned have taken up their positions. The person in charge here said: "The launch and retrieval of the first space shuttle will take place in the new space centre and the bases in its vicinity. It will take about ten years to accomplish this grand project."
It is now reported that the rail transportation system has been completed and that the launch pad assemblies indicate a launch vehicle far larger than the currently-existing family of Chang Zheng vehicles.
A paper was presented at the 1992 IAF Congress entitled "A Modular Space transportation System" (IAF-92-0857), which described a possible family of future launch vehicles derived from a basic two-stage vehicle which could be clustered in different ways and which could be supplemented additional upper stages. It is unclear whether this paper represents a purely theoretical exercise or whether it is indicative of Chinese planning for future launch vehicles.
The idea behind the paper is the development of a baseline two-stage launch vehicle with the characteristics listed in Table 1.
The Chinese paper notes that the first stage fuel would be a "hydrocarbon (CH)" and this is taken to refer to kerosene - especially since the Chinese would later express an interest in purchasing Russian liquid oxygen/kerosene engines (to be discussed later).
The use of liquid oxygen and kerosene on the first stage of this vehicle would mark a departure for the Chinese, since they have previously used storable UDMH and a nitrogen-derived oxidiser (usually nitrogen tetroxide). The choice of storable propellants is a result of the current launch vehicles being based upon missiles for which storable propellants is virtually essential.
The study called for a baseline vehicle with a length of less than 60 metres and a length/diameter ratio below 13. The study took the diameters of the two stages to be a common 4.5 metres which corresponded to a maximum length of 58.5 metres: in fact, a length of 55 metres was decided upon, including a payload fairing of 12 metres.
Data for the overall launch vehicle are:-
- launch mass 377 tonnes
- payload capability 11 tonnes
- length 55 metres
- diameter 4.5 metres
- first stage thrust 4.8 MN [490 tonnes]
One table in the paper notes a launch mass of 337 tonnes, but elsewhere the mass is quoted as 377 tonnes, a figure which is confirmed from simple arithmetic. The numbers imply that the payload shroud would have a mass of three tonnes. The payload mass is quoted in the paper for a 60o, 300-500 km orbit: from calculations by this writer these figures would mean a launch from Jiuquan with a good margin of residual propellant.
On top of the second stage an instrument unit 1.6 metres high would be carried, acting as a data-collection and processing centre for the vehicle.
The first stage would carry four engines which can gimble for control. The second stage a single main engine and a set of four verniers.
Taking this base design, it is proposed that a three-stage launch vehicle could be developed which could place 6 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit: although not stated, one assumes that the third stage would use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen - already in use with the existing CZ-3 and CZ-3A launch vehicles.
A series of different launch vehicles derived from the baseline launch vehicle's stages and the not-described third stage is proposed, leading to a maximum payload capability of 70 tonnes to the standard 60o, 300-500 km reference orbit. Details are given in Table 2. For the larger payloads a fairing with a diameter of 5.4 metres and a length of 18 metres would be used.
Thinking in terms of a manned programme, one can imagine that the baseline vehicle could be used to launch the manned spacecraft, while a "Model 1" derivative could be used to launch a space station module.
While the concepts of the 1992 paper are interesting and would represent an extension of the existing Chinese philosophy of taking the basic CZ-2C launch vehicle and modifying it to provide the full variety which we see in the CZ-2, CZ-3 and CZ-4 families, we have no idea whether the 1992 proposals will remain a paper study or will become (or even is !) a funded programme.http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/1921/story-3.htm
Born in 1970, Wang Chun studied at the Nanjing Aeronautical Institute for years since 1992, then graduated University of Defense Technology in 2006 to obtain master’s degree in aerospace engineering. After that, Wang Chun served in the Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute as a member of wing structure design team. Now he has been a senior engineer and general director of Near Space Vehicle Research Laboratory, Aerospace Technology and UAV Design Department, CADI(Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute).
The newspaper reported that Wang Chun’s over 10-year work mainly engaged in aircraft structural design, and involved the development of J-10 and FC-1 fighters. He also made great contributions for one key project of Chinese “National 863 Plan”.
China’s “Shen long” Trans-Atmospheric Vehicle
In a major project of “Tenth-five-year” plan, Wang Chun fully participated the space vehicle prototype’s design, overall assembly and flight test, and fully responsible for the development of a subsystem project management, presided over the completion of the emergency isolation system design, installation, ground test and ground flight test.
During the “Eleventh Five-Year” plan, he led the work of the average age of less than 30 years of a young team, undertook a comprehensive test prototype design work, which completed in just four years He has become the main contributor for the successful trial flight of aerospace fighter prototype.
The prototype space vehicle designed by Wang Chun, is distinguished with new concept, creative layout and new features for flexible deployment in space and air. His achievements make breakthroughs in space vehicle Integrated Design, multi-band space-borne shaping antenna working under extreme condition and useful payload structure design.
Saturday, May 1, 2010
2010-04-30 Author: From: Xinhua Views: 4511 User Comments 0
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Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is located in Qingdao City, West Coast Export Processing Zone, the Russian helicopters should Tong Ji Tuan Gong Si and Chinese joint venture, Zong Touzi 5 million yuan, registered Zijin 200 million yuan, an area of 181 acres, mainly engaged in Russian-made helicopter maintenance and spare parts sales
Invested 500 million yuan of the Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held.
Invested 500 million yuan of the Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held.
China and Russia shared the leadership of founder
China and Russia shared the leadership of founder
Xinhua Qingdao on April 29 (Xinhua Xu Bing Zhang Xudong) invested 500 million yuan of Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is located in the west coast of Qingdao Export Processing Zone, by the Russian helicopter company and the Chinese joint venture group should pass a total investment of 500 million yuan, registered capital of 200 million yuan, an area of 181 acres, is mainly engaged in Russian-made helicopter maintenance and spare parts sales, the Russian-made helicopter pilots and maintenance personnel training, and assembling parts of Karimov family and Miri series of small and medium helicopters. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
According to reports, the project was February 11, 2010 to complete the registration, which is the west coast of Export Processing Zone of Qingdao Haili Helicopter program after the United States to settle down after the second helicopter manufacturing project, a Russian helicopter company in India, South Korea and Spain established after the sixth state helicopter maintenance and service center. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
It is understood that the aviation industry is the state-level economic and technological development zone of Qingdao four emerging industries, Qingdao Development Zone in Shandong Province has been classified as a light helicopter export base. Most recent projects and extensive radiation, high technology, high added value, is a capital and technology intensive industries. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
Saturday, April 10, 2010
Blue-water navy plans advancing, US says
Greg Torode Chief Asia correspondent
Apr 01, 2010
China could have its first aircraft carrier operational in two years, according to the most senior US military official in the Asia-Pacific region.
Admiral Robert Willard, commander of the US Pacific Command in Hawaii, told a recent US congressional hearing that the Soviet-era carrier Varyag, bought from a Ukrainian shipyard in 1998, would be "operational around 2012 and likely be used to develop basic carrier skills" after a 10-year refit. His statement is the most specific yet from the Pentagon on Beijing's aircraft carrier ambitions.
Several military analysts and diplomatic military attaches said the Varyag had recently left dry dock at a Dalian shipyard revealing extensive work to its hull and superstructure. It had also been demagnetised in order to avoid mines. They said they believed the Varyag would almost certainly be kept close to the mainland coast to train pilots and crew until China's first domestically built carriers were completed, possibly as soon as 2015.
It is not yet known whether Varyag's engines have been fully fitted. A full-scale concrete replica of its flight deck and superstructure is near completion next to a technical college in Wuhan, Hubei province.
Willard told the armed services committee of the House of Representatives late last week there was a need for deeper engagement with Beijing amid international doubt that its military modernisation was "purely defensive" as stated. "Frank and candid" discussions were needed, he said, but they required "a stable and reliable US-China military-to-military relationship - a relationship that does not yet exist with the PLA".
"Over the past few years, China has begun a new phase of military development by beginning to articulate roles and missions for the PLA that go beyond China's immediate territorial concerns, but has left unclear to the international community the purposes and objectives of the PLA's evolving doctrine and capabilities," Willard said.
An operational Varyag is widely seen as a crucial step on the path to China fulfilling its aim of achieving full blue-water naval capability.
Even if the Varyag is operational in two years, it remains unclear whether China will be able to obtain planes capable of flying from its take-off ramp. While pilots have been in training with Ukrainian advisers, Beijing has yet to complete a deal with Moscow to purchase carrier-capable Su-33 fighters.
Talks have dragged on for four years, with Moscow - wary of having its military technology reverse-engineered - wanting to sell at least 50 planes and China wanting a far smaller number.
China has already obtained an Su-33 prototype from Ukraine for research purposes.
The PLA will also need to perfect theconfiguration of the Varyag's radars, wiring and communications - all highly complicated on a cramped carrier. It will also have to learn to use the ship in tandem with the support ships and submarines vital to its protection.
Andrew Erickson, a China scholar at the US Naval War College, said getting the Varyag operational was merely the start. "China's refitting of Varyag to make it operational around 2012 seems to be part one of a two-part approach - outfit a foreign-purchased platform to enable basic training, while preparing a more capable [domestically made] platform for higher-level military operations," he said.
"Some time after 2015, personnel that initially trained on the Varyag could be transferred to China's first indigenous operational carrier." Whether the home-grown design would be based on the Varyag remained to be seen. Analysts have noted that the ramps used on the Soviet-era carriers limit the type and weight of aircraft that can be deployed compared to flat-deck carriers that use steam catapults, such as American and French carriers.
Xu Guangyu, a Beijing-based retired PLA general, said the Chinese side had yet to reveal a detailed schedule for carrier development. "I think Admiral Willard's report comes the closest to Beijing's answer because the US is the most experienced aircraft carrier expert."
Gary Li, a PLA specialist at the London-based International Institute of Strategic Studies, said it was clear that PLA officials were well aware of the limitations of the Varyag and were still looking at other designs.
"It does seem they've got little option at the moment but to push ahead with the Varyag for training ... it is clear they know just how long a road they have embarked on, so they've got to make a start on integrating all the necessary components," he said.
"Although carrier technology is very old, it is still extremely complex to acquire from scratch. Even the welding techniques to withstand such stresses are closely held secrets."
The 67,500-tonne Varyag was partially completed in a Ukrainian shipyard when the Soviet Union collapsed. Stripped of technology, the hull and superstructure were sold to Beijing for US$20 million in 1998. China later paid extra for the blueprints.
The then-rusting hulk of the ship was towed to China via Macau, prompting early speculation that it might be used for a casino.
Additional reporting by Minnie Chan
Saturday, January 16, 2010
[Military commander commonplace]
China's missile defense program with the anti-satellite warfare program in time can be roughly divided into three phases the first phase of the sixties the "640 Project", including the national missile defense system and theater missile defense systems and anti-satellite combat systems. The second stage is the eighties of the "863 Program", the main and basic technical feasibility demonstration and technical reserves. Since the late nineties the third phase has the face of the U.S. nuclear blackmail and the threat of satellite weapons, armaments, mainly carried out against the U.S. missile defense program and feasibility study and program planning.
The late fifties of last century, the whole atmosphere of the Cold War, the Earth has been completely enveloped; between the two camps, it has long been eyeing. Which led to the Cold War, the so-called "balance of terror" phenomenon of the most important factor, is none other than nuclear deterrence. More than 10 years ago, the world has experimented with nuclear weapons, "style"; one of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one has become a milestone in the history of mankind atomic energy development. Affected by this stimulus, the ability of countries in the development of nuclear weapons; in NATO and the Warsaw Pact confrontation, and "capable of mutual assured destruction" background, but never Zhebing sword scabbard. By the late fifties, the Chinese are in a home and less abroad times. Internal problems first, not to mention, only saying that the international community, but also a lot of problems: a few years ago, the Korean War, has clearly defined the enemy of the United States led the West; and continued progress with the Sino-Soviet dispute, China and the socialist tradition camp, they are facing a complete break situation.
A blink of an eye to the sixties, "Great Leap Forward" after China, are rapidly recovered. However, the international situation at that time, but it did not turn for the better - if not worse words: this time, the Sino-Soviet Union has a complete breakdown of the Sino-Soviet border is already a massive gathering. Soviet and Chinese military exercises deduction, have proved a problem: the Soviet Union's mechanized army and tanks, army, just a few hours, you can by way of Zhangjiakou, pressed Beijing! For this reason, the possibility of Soviet offensive line, the Chinese armed forces are in layers of fortification. However, if the Soviet conventional attack is not, but use a new type of nuclear attack, how can I do?
If you choose the Soviet Union nuclear attack, I am afraid may not be just like the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki when it was using only way to carry out bomb bomber - the world, has been the emergence of new delivery platform, which is equipped with long-range nuclear warheads ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles. The so-called "intercontinental ballistic missiles," the long-range ballistic missiles, full flight time, but 30-40 minutes. Medium-range ballistic missiles launched from Mongolia, hit Chinese territory, the whole time and even less than ten minutes. Moreover, the multiple independently targetable, lured by deception, mobility, etc. warheads way, there have been - in this case, there are no nuclear-armed China, can withstand a nuclear attack from the West or the North?
In fact, this is not a question of suspense; can or can not, must be carried out to resist - just because defense up "very difficult", do not go to defense Mody? Categorically do not have this reason!
(B), the opening
December 1963, heard a report on strategic weapons, after Chairman Mao Zedong instructed: atomic bombs, missiles, and in any case not more than anyone else Gaode. At the same time, we are also a defense strategy. Therefore, in addition to engaging in offensive weapons, but also engage in more defensive weapons. Two months later, February 6, 1964, this issue has once again been proposed by Mao Zedong; that day, he met with Qian, vice president of the five branches of the Ministry of Defense and some other scientist, who specifically addressed the anti-missile research question: "There is spear there is a shield, a small number of people engaged in food to eat, specifically study this issue, 5-year No, 10, 10 not, 15 years, the total wants to come out!. " Chairman Mao was referring to is China's "Anti-Ballistic Missile Project", code-named 640.
Ingenious's Mao Zedong of China's NMD (National Missile Defense), said that due to development of nuclear submarines and is familiar with the "ten thousand years." Shows that China's leaders in this matter on a great determination.
In early 1964 this instruction has since become known as the 640 directions - the corresponding anti-ballistic missile-related research planning, the project is code-named Project 640.
In order to implement the instructions 640, a month after the March 23 National Defense Science and Technology Commission held a ballistic missile defense science. To participate in the seminar, a total of 30 experts and leaders from the four planes, Ministry of Defense the five branches of the Ministry of Defense 10 Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People's Liberation Army artillery and other units. This discussion will be made clear to the three possible ways of anti-missile, and have done a preliminary division of labor: the five branches of the Ministry of Defense is responsible for the anti-missile missiles, artillery Institute of Science is responsible for super-gun anti-missile, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics is responsible for the anti-missile laser. One of the super-gun anti-missile, in fact, a super anti-missile artillery abbreviation - but this project ultimately Whispering another home; on this issue, we later take your time.
August 14, 1964, Premier Zhou Enlai approved by Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals 7 as "anti-missile, anti-satellite research institute in general." 2 hospital was started in early 1964 preparatory work for the organization, and in 1970 demonstrated anti-satellite program.
One year later, May 10, 1965, the Central Office of the IPCC issued a "on the enemy's missile defense research issues," which called the Ministry of the four planes, five machine department, six machine department, the Ministry of seven aircraft, Chinese Academy of Sciences, artillery , XX Base (Note: This article is abbreviated), we must make the enemy's missile defense research, part of the unit's annual and long-term planning. Two months later, July 8, National Defense Science and Technology Commission to submit to the central post "on the anti-missile defense system research and development planning report" plans developed between 1973-1975 interception system, and to intercept test. August 27, the Central Committee of the 13th special meeting approved the report.
February 23, 1966, National Defense Science and Technology 640 project briefing meeting. In January 1967, China's military and scientific research within the system held a "640 Project" conference, identified the five sub-systems, code-named, the research unit of the division of labor, the system's development planning, etc., and decided to accelerate the missile range and anti-missile nuclear warheads Development. To propose a plan at the meeting in 73 years to around 75 years. The specific content has not yet declassified. There has been speculation the five engineering systems are: the lower back on the 1st of hypersonic interceptor missile system [ "rubber overshoes" technical concepts]; back on the 2nd low-level interceptor missile system [for combat]; back on the 3rd level interceptor missile system [two-tier interceptor system the concept of]; anti-wei on the 1st system [anti-satellite laser system]; strategic early warning system [such as the detection range of 2000-3000 km of 7010 phased array radar system, 110 single-pulse tracking radar systems, satellite tracking and control network, 180 radar, accurate measurement of single-pulse and "Yuan Wang" ship tracking and other guidance systems, computers and command center 108 B (C3I), ground facilities, etc.]), propose a plan developed in the years between 1973-1975 interception system, and to intercept tests, the meeting decided to speed up the Anti-Ballistic Missile Range and the development of anti-missile nuclear warheads.
(C), Pioneer supergun
640 receiving instructions Chairman Mao Qian, when he was vice president of the five branches of the Ministry of Defense. With 640 projects began to take shape, the entire Defense Department has evolved into the five branches of the Ministry of seven aircraft (aerospace industry); a matter of course, it became the second branch of the Seventh Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals. The protagonist of this article 640-2 project, which is super-cannon project is being landed on the shoulders of the two homes; specifically, fell on two homes Er Yi ○ Institute for the shoulders.
This Eryi ○ Institution, is the original one hundred tenth ○ an Institute of the PLA General Logistics Department; and National Defense Science and Technology The reason it has been classified into two homes by name, it works in order to 640-2. With the division of tasks, of course, that's fine; However, what is the how to use super-guns to counter the missile, but it became a real technical problems. Incoming nuclear warheads too fast, highly are too high, which determines the cannon fired to intercept warheads, and the flight speed must be fast enough, but must also be high enough to shoot high.
To address this issue, 210 conducted the first phase of exploration, the final proposed the "sub-caliber artillery shells intercept" option. Upon receipt of the second year of instruction 640, 210 on the 85-mm smoothbore gun tests were carried out. Corresponding measures taken after weighing 4 kg of the projectile, its velocity has reached 1,200 m / sec; while this rate, higher than 50% before conversion. However, for the Anti-Ballistic Missile, or not fast enough.
In the smoothbore gun firing sub-caliber shells tests, also studied the rocket afterburner shells, solid punch afterburner bomb tests. After two kinds of test materials, is now too little, can not be described here. The study is still continuing. Between 1966 and 1968, under the shadow of the Cultural Revolution (7 Ministry of Machine has been a huge shock, not to mention in this skip) ,640-2 project to move forward with another: 140 mm smoothbore gun, firing 18 kg weight of the warheads, the results achieved muzzle velocity 1600 m / s, shot high reached 74 km. This is a great leap forward - not only that, carried out in 140 artillery 11 48 hair test to prove: sub-caliber shells and reliable airframe structure, flight stability.
Dream of China's super-cannon, but also gradually clearer ... ...
In January 1967, "640-2" project will hold a demonstration program; It was at this meeting, the Chinese program is to determine the super-cannon. Under the program, the super cannon design parameters are as follows:
Gunner 26 meters
155 tons of heavy artillery
Shells sub-caliber rockets
Weight 160 kg bomb
A muzzle velocity of 900 meters / sec
High fire unknown
The design goal is clear: to strive in 1969 to participate in interception "East Wind III" warhead tests. This door is without precedent in the history of China's super-cannon, was given a resounding name: Pioneer.
From the figure we can clearly see that Pioneer is fixed on the ground of the super-cannon. In addition, Pioneer long barrel, it is all three very unique stand - so cannon, the actual weight of the barrel takes very alarming; barrel in order to prevent sagging, the German Krupp often in the stretch on the an issue, while the Pioneer, then the use of technical support seem to be more easily achieved way.
For a super-cannon, the chassis is fixed, relatively low muzzle velocity, support-type barrel, from the tactics that can not be said to be very good; but take into account the Pioneer only be used to ground air defense, the enemy warhead inevitably fall from the sky, this program there is also a rational point. After all, the Pioneer and former super-artillery mission different from a cannon purely technical performance indicators to compare and easily biased.
In short, if we can complete the "high-altitude warhead hit" tasks, it is successful - from this perspective, Pioneer's design ideas, and there is no problem; On the home is not fit over the intercept a nuclear warhead, specifically, how operation, then with the Pioneer does not have relationship.
In order to intercept incoming warheads, a gun is clearly wrong with the way a bullet - if Dabu Zhao, I am afraid there will be no chance of a second firing. In order to effectively intercept, it must be within 20 kilometers altitude - otherwise, low-altitude explosions of nuclear warheads, they completely lost the meaning of interception - this time, single-shot non-controlled rocket-propelled grenades "quasi-head" has been Dacheng problem, the probability of interception can not be guaranteed. To this end, we must form a dense cannon group, while shooting. This means that, in order to achieve an effective block, this 155 tons of the Pioneer, we must make a lot of doors possible to achieve design goals.
Artillery projectile left the gun barrels, they Zaimo the whereabouts of one can interfere in the. Therefore, needed to adjust intercept ballistic super-cannon, the rocket is equipped with no control is extremely inappropriate. And if the artillery guidance system is installed, the whole artillery missiles would be used - although they are still artillery of. In this way, large-scale salvo of the blanket into a small-scale interception precision strike, its effect is much better. After much research later, naturally, the 210 has finally changed the research direction, from the artillery rockets, missiles, artillery instead. At the same time, the above study also proposed can be used to combat the low-altitude interception system, the purpose of some is to deal with conventional warheads. Missiles, artillery shells and the existing high-speed, high-precision missiles there, regardless of the level of block can be used.
Since then, China's super-cannon developed by the second phase, also from 1970, officially began.
The resulting new technical stumbling block; careful count, probably two. Only the first is the size of the problem. The early seventies, China, missiles, already has many forms, but to "small" to be able to into the gun barrels, may hard to find a suitable varieties.
The second only is the overload. People upstairs fall, the overload is a G; fighter to do tactical actions, and instant overload can reach 7-8 G; spaceship take-off and return the maximum transient overload can go to 10 G or so. The artillery, "bang" That's what, with the warhead to bear much overload?
Calculated according to the parameters of super-cannon, probably have to bear 5000-10000 G! Such a poor working environment, airframe structures, engines, electronic equipment and even the top of the development, have raised the harsh too daunting, almost harsh demands - at a time when the Chinese, there is no accumulated experience in this area. All, only to start from scratch to explore. The groping, you have a component to a. Starting from the gyro, acceleration table, servo system, amplifier, inverter machine, antenna, speed control, missile telemetry systems on the ... ... had to be tested.
Here, too, say one more thing: In the year environment, still able to adhere to the work of Chinese scientists is really admirable! Through unremitting efforts, and from 1000-5000 G, artillery experiments 210 researchers ultimately concluded that: some parts had been strengthened, they can withstand 3000-5000 G ultra-high overload - and the reinforcement approach to put it bluntly, is not a mystery, is to use their own wax, or epoxy casting insulation.
But the top, or not do. Gyro, it is the whole core of the missile components to determine their attitude, if gyro not, then how could it get? To solve this problem, 210, and Yi Siyi ○ Ministry of Electronics Industry in collaboration with the beginning pre-research Zhenliang rate gyro. The result is exciting, the trial out of Zhenliang rate gyro After several trials, successfully weathered the 3000-5000 G, several tests are completely normal, has now been finalized and equipment to other missile projects.
In this one, has won the National Invention Award.
Bomb changed, guns naturally need to change. This time, the idea of gun design has also changed significantly: In order to meet the requirements of low-altitude interceptor, interceptor does not require such a high pace of their work; to this end, the researchers selected non-recoilless rifle. Non-recoilless rifle, that is kind of like a bit like a rocket-propelled grenades, firing back a long flame spray gun. Because the propellant combustion, a large number of gas an outlet that, unlike in other years, as desperation artillery, only pushing the projectile death-defying run; Therefore, it fired a projectile, the speed was correspondingly lower down. 50 kg projectile, loaded into 200-mm recoilless rifle caliber free years, after the launch speed of 820 meters / second - the result of the acquisition, direct proof that a low chamber pressure, low-velocity non-recoilless rifle conventional design is feasible The.
On this basis, China's largest caliber gun was designed out - it was actually surprised to the caliber of 420 millimeters in no way inferior to some well-known super-cannon!
However, the information inside this gate which is called "China's most" of the introduction of fixed-trajectory gun, only this one.
Meanwhile, the corresponding recovery of projectiles have also done a study:
- 140-mm artillery shells at high overload recovery parachute tests, successfully;
- From 3000-15000 G, high overload environment, parachute recovery, the success rate of 100%;
- Projectile speed of 2-3 times the speed of sound when the parachute and successfully.
Several studies above and directly contributed to China's spacecraft, the progress of re-entry parachute recovery technology - in other words, today the success of Shenzhou VI, which also has a super cannon project credit ah! While researchers continue to study at the same time, the world situation is quietly changing.
In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Missile Treaty. This means that, through mutual restrictions "shield" the number and scope, to ensure that the "spear" is sharp, thereby ensuring the "balance of terror." Then, in 1975, the United States again has just completed an anti-missile defense area closed. And so on, can not fail to affect the decision-makers and participants in 640 projects.
3 months later in February 1978, two hospital submitted to the Ministry of Machine 7 "About Eryi ○ direction of the report of the Institute's mandate," and proposed the termination of the ABM supergun pre-research work. Also passed two months, April 26, 1978, seven aircraft Song Renqiong Minister conveyed to the two House Science Committee's views on national defense: the formation of a crack team to continue to explore multi-channel Anti-Ballistic Missile; requirements earmarking; other forces take offensive weapons research task.
So three sentences 640-2 has the size of the project team battle is much smaller.
Two months later, June 29, 1978, Deng Xiaoping, Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee meeting on post-secondary instruction: a study or to study can be left to some people continue to engage. This meeting clearly sets out the Department of Space 2 House of direction: to put power on the development of offensive weapons; ABM model developed by the task, adjusting for individual pre-ways to explore and research. March 19, 1980, according to the Ministry of National Defense Science and Technology Commission and seven machine decision ,640-2 project that is "super-gun anti-missile project," and finally stopped development and testing.
Development of China's super-cannon, to this end.
(D), counter-series of missiles
One counter-attack missile was then seven Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals (now known as the China Aerospace Electromechanical Group, two homes, called Changfeng Electromechanical Technology Research and Design Institute) did not complete high-speed low-level anti-missile pilot projects.
Graphic: back on the 1st, back on the 3rd missile on the launch pad were raised to heaven, the defense of the motherland sky. It was a red era, full of glory and dreams. Counter-attack on the 1st to the counter-attack on the 3rd of China's "640" Project of the anti-ballistic missile system, part of the anti-missile missiles.
2 Hospital since 1964 began to organize teams, in August 1969 into an anti-missile, anti-satellite in general Institute, 10 were carried out within a few years anti-ballistic missile intercept test system with low system-wide strike on the 1st auxiliary equipment development. In August 1979 to September through production, assembly, testing, successfully carried out two bomb hair model flight test telemetry.
At the same time, due to Zhenbao Island in 1969 Sino-Soviet conflict, China began to universal access to quasi-war. In addition to digging, the anti-ballistic missile program has become urgent. In order to put into use as quickly as possible, China's first resorted to "counter-II" anti-missile system to intercept low-level test. 71 October to 72 years in April, China has carried out six missile 1:5 model experiments, five of which were successful. Adjustment of the mandate in 1973, stopped due to development;
1974, 5 ~ 6 months, seven aircraft and two House co-organized the Department held a counter-attack on the 3rd High-intercept missile weapon system program of seminars and technical coordination meeting, and supporting equipment to carry out the development and key technology research. Back on the 3rd in 1977 stopped the development, which have been successfully developed S-7 Large-board computer become a "fifth wind" strategic missiles and other types of ancillary facilities. At the same time, also completed the practice on the 2nd B in satellite design, anti-wei on the 1st (satellite ASAT) weapons systems, the overall design and some of the equipment development and testing, these tests were all successful; the construction of China's 60 years of conventional hypersonic wind 0.5 m hole there in order to "counter the" missile testing purposes. After the completion of 75 years, respectively, for the "East Wind", "counter", "waves," "Dawn," "Vanguard", "Dongsheng", "Red Flag" wind tunnel tests of various projects (from 95 years of publication "cave heavens and wind and thunder" a book). Now only the "Dongsheng" This strange code does not know what is useless to send, when things need to hypersonic hair is really small, Dongsheng ranked the dawn of the spacecraft with the red vanguard among the anti-aircraft missiles, but also the "East" prefix weapons , from the strategic importance of the sort seen in, perhaps this type of device orbital bombardment system. People's Liberation Army's military under the anti-missile project progress to the central authorities put forward the "zone program was conceived to Beijing."
(5), strategic early warning system
Series with the counter-attack the anti-missile interceptors than the 640 project's strategic early warning radar system developing rather smoothly. The radar system consists of two rated as the most of the radar in China: 7010 phased array radar and 110 mono-pulse tracking radar. Both are products of Nanjing Institute of Electronic Technology. Among them, the radar in 7010 started to develop for 70 years in May, some 72 years of experimental installation, 74 years put into use 76 years into full installation, 77 years completed. The radar can continuously track the 10 approved the above goals. 110 radar in 66 years started to develop, 77 delivered.
7010 phased array early warning radar is China's "640 Project" strategic early warning system one of the components. The radar in May 1970 approved the development. 7010 Radar Transmitter with four high-power multi-cavity klystron, with a total peak power of 10 MW, average power of 200 kW, electric scanning antenna array surface is wide and 40 meters high 20 meters, feed unit 8976, detection range of 3,000 km. 120 degrees in azimuth and elevation 2-80 degrees while airspace to search while tracking, continuous tracking batches of target computers equipped with the sizes of the full-stop real-time control, processing and computing. Using pulse compression, anti-side lobe, variable polarization and other anti-interference measures, a `some key components, ext using duplex redundancy, with the work of the whole machine condition monitoring system and fault display system. 1972, a small planar array antennas installation of equipment set up and the FBI. Radar is set at an altitude of more than 1.6 thousand meters on the slopes, after several years of effort on the eve of the 25th anniversary of National Day observed in outer space targets. In 1976 to conduct a comprehensive array antenna installation, commissioning, and operational.
This is built on the plateau Huang Yangshan Saibei cliff on the radar for the 7010 Northwest
7010 Radar underground command center
This is the abandoned 7010 radar. Appalling
110 single-pulse tracking radar is China's "640 Project" strategic early warning system one of the components, detection range of more than 2,000 km. From 1965 to 1970, China developed in 1959 based on 110, radar simulation carried out Cassegrain antenna single pulse, pulse compression, pulse-Doppler velocimetry, parametric amplifier, advanced computer applications, a large antenna structure and the turntable research, were technological breakthroughs and entered the implementation phase of the radar project. In 1977, China's first 110 ultra long-range tracking radar equipment units can be tracked more than 2,000 miles away in outer space non-cooperative targets, in our launch intercontinental rockets, satellites and other projects carried out several times in tracking foreign targets in outer space任务.
110 single-pulse long-range tracking radar
110 Radar, 7010 The successful development of radar, so that China has become the world's first large-scale three ultra-long-range tracking radar country.
640 works will include the building of strategic early warning system, in which stations south to Hainan Island, west to Kashgar in Xinjiang, Shandong, east Jiaodong. Command center is located in Weinan's "28" area. 28 ground-based observing system as a whole is the command center is equipped with the most comprehensive observation station, the original base for the missile tests, its facilities include a pre-telemetry stations, Recycle Bin, activity stations.
A project is completed, the six stations with Kashi Tianshan Station, Nanning Guijiang Station, Kunming Dianchi Lake Station, Hainan, South Island stations, Jiaodong Bohai Sea Station, Western Hunan station, then an additional code-named "Qinling" control computing station, code-named " Yangtze River "recycling stations, code-named" outposts ", the first activity stations, code-named" Yellow River "activity station and the second code-named" Great Wall "of Changchun station. Missile tracking and launch a number of stations needed coordination and control, which requires an extremely precise time-integration system to a unified time reference. Was then put this code-named "930" unified safety equipment when shipped back to base, the Chengdu Military Region of the People's Liberation Army sent an even pressure along the transport, the Ministry of Defense held a special permit, any person who cause trouble entrapment, shoot to kill.
At that time, these early-warning radar units are in a highly confidential state. Local people know there are a People's Liberation Army troops, but never on the people and local contacts, but also did not like the other People's Liberation Army forces to engage in "military-civilian joint construction" of the types of activities, and even force Which military services have trouble is not clear, only to see the bare base's enormous spherical radome, so the locals put this mysterious force known as the "big ball unit."
After 1977, the completion of these two giant radar on many occasions China's missiles, and satellite observation mission; in counter-attack on the 1st anti-ballistic missile test, the missile body is only 10 seconds away from the frame was firmly grasp it, and stable tracking, rapid prediction impact point for the rocket, made an important contribution to anti-missile tests; an accurate forecast of the United States in 1979, "Sky Lab" Fall; in May 1980, it issued two Dongfeng-5-type ICBM full trial, respectively of the X16 seconds and X96-second tracking data, the furthest distance of 3,000 kilometers of track; July 18, 1981, 7010 radar receive and Industry for National Defense, director of the then Chief of Staff Zhang Min a telephone, calls for 19, the Soviet Union launched the Pacific launch vehicle tracking. 7010 consecutive start for 11 days, on 19 and 28, the two observed two launch vehicles, the timely launch point and impact point prediction of the latitude and longitude, warning time and range. From the measurement data analysis, two missiles with multiple warheads, the Soviet Union unpublished pilot project, the form of a low-trajectory launch, apparently in order to test the accuracy of sub-missile guidance heads. After engaging in other channels available information shows that 7010 observations are correct.
January 12, 1983 received a higher-level instructions to observe and intercept are dangerous to the Earth's 1402 fall of the Soviet Union nuclear-powered satellite. However, due to non-disclosure of the Soviet side the satellite orbital parameters, 110, huge rotating radar antenna, continuous work four and a half hours, remained in the needle in the haystack, nothing. Until the first 3 days, Kunming station to track the target only to the timely notification Zhanyi station. Under the notification of the orbital parameters, 18 and 19, the two start a continuous capture Zhanyi the target, and can identify the three objectives, as the 1402A, 1402B, 1402C.
January 22, 1983, Zhang Min, chief of staff to call the station and asked about the pieces of The Fall of the Soviet spy satellite time and place. Central government was already in power positions to make the country X interceptors, in case the satellite fell into my densely populated areas, be sure, in its fallen before their interception, destroyed, protecting people's lives and property. Day noon, Zhanyi station BX-10 computer through the solution of calculation, arrived at 1402A Fall of time at 4:00 on January 24 to between 8 am and will be reported in this projection of Science, Technology. At 5:00 on January 24, Zhanyi station also reported that out of the stars, the exact time of re-entry at 6:30 on the 24th place for the longitude 67.9 degrees north latitude and 1.1 degrees, do not fall into the territory of China! It was placed under the leadership of the Central Military Commission and the heart. The actual fall of 1402 satellite stations longer than the forecast Zhanyi just nine minutes earlier, the displacement error of 3.4 thousand kilometers.
U.S. North American Aerospace Defense Command, the forecasting time than accurate, than the actual time was within 1 minute, but the displacement error of tens of thousands of kilometers, the scope of China's big three times the forecast! This shows that the radar early-warning capacity in China at that time reached the world advanced level. By the monitoring network in charge of our satellites, has also made 15 successful launches 14 recycling success.
(6), a comprehensive ocean-going tracking ship space
4: "Yuan Wang Number One", "Yuan Wang II" ship is the first generation of a comprehensive ocean-going tracking ship space, is mainly responsible spacecraft measurement, control, communications, and salvage recovery task is to China's space tracking and control network of the important components section. Two sister ships in 1965 by the National Defense Science and Technology Commission approval, 1967 by the Shanghai 708 Research Institute began to demonstrate the design, in September 1976 started the construction of the Jiangnan Shipyard, 1977, 8,10 On the completion of the water, to Chairman Mao's hand-written poems of Ye Jianying, " Yuanwang "named -" Yuan Wang 1 "," Yuan Wang 2 ". Boat length 191 meters, 22.6 meters wide ship, the ship 38 meters high, with an average depth of 7.5 meters, full load displacement of 21,157 tons. "Yuan Wang I" ship in the last 30 years, Daohai test days, the course of ever playing football arrows, 41 times across the oceans and marine operations and nearly 1,500 days, total range of more than 270,000 sea miles, has 38 successfully completed the satellite, the spacecraft and other major state-level scientific research and experiments. "Yuan Wang II" has 28 ships cross the ocean, safe navigation nearly 400,000 sea miles (equivalent to 20 laps around the earth), 20 docked in foreign ports, the successful completion of 31 major scientific research and experiments, setting China's space ocean monitoring and control in the history of "six of the most", "four for the first time" (the most complete implementation of the task model, the highest frequency sea, maritime longest continuous monitoring and control, task switching time, the shortest stop outer most times, the total range as far as the first times bear the sea of foreign satellite launches measurement tasks, the first time the satellite sea control, the first successful use of joint-control technology Attitude s major attitude adjustment on the satellite, the first stop outer), etc. records.
"Yuan Wang IV" ship was in August 1998 by the original "Xiang Yang Hong No. 10," space converted ocean-going tracking ship, the main responsible for maritime satellite and spacecraft tracking, telemetry, communications, and control tasks. The "Xiangyanghong 10" boat for the long-range rockets of our full flight test (code 718 works) developed the first large-scale comprehensive study of marine science and ocean-going communications ship and marine engineering from the China Ship Design and Research Institute and Jiangnan Shipyard in February 1971 began to study the design, construction started in July 1975, delivered in October 1979, has completed China's first launch vehicle test to the Pacific Ocean, the first Antarctic expedition and Antarctic Great Wall Station Jianzhan task, for the first time the South Pacific Ocean tasks such as scientific exploration and achieved fruitful results. The vessel has 10 decks, with nearly 7,000 tons of steel, nearly 9,000 units installed equipment, the laying of pipelines near 29 km, laying cable about 190 kilometers, and its construction is equivalent to 3 million-ton capacity vessels.
China's first self-designed and manufactured a 10000-ton large-scale ocean science integrated research ship
On board in addition to a general comprehensive marine survey ship all of the various instruments and experimental work outdoors, it also boasts: large-scale ship-borne helicopters, the system can meet a "Super Hornet" helicopter for use at sea a long-term requirements; Meteorological Center system which can bear the consequences of short-term weather forecasts and hazardous weather warnings; all-weather ocean communications systems, can protect the multi-network large-capacity data communication and relay the day Hou special letter;-power Ocean Marine acoustic systems, could be a long continuous sound of ocean water test and sonar equipment testing; dive boat working the system. The vessel was awarded the Year 1979 National Defense Science and Technology Commission of major scientific and technological achievements overall design of the first prize in 1985, won the National Scientific and Technological Progress of China's first Grand Prize Award.
(G), 640 Chronology of major events engineering
December 1963: Mao Zedong launched the initiative of defense strategy.
February 6, 1964: a clear vision put forward defense strategy.
1964: two hospital organizations, the development team.
1964-1966: National Defense Science and Technology, etc. is envisaged that from 1973 to 1975, developed a test system.
October 1967: "640" project meeting, that "five system of the code, and to speed up the construction of anti-missile test range and carrying out anti-ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead development work and recommendations."
August 14, 1969: Zhou Enlai instructed the Ministry of two homes bear the seven anti-aircraft missile development.
August 1969: Second homes as an anti-missile, anti-satellite research institute in general, to fight back on the 1st full-system development.
1970: two homes on the 2nd low-altitude interceptor weapon system programs to counter demonstration and development work.
October 1971 -1,972 years in April: counter-attack on the 2nd to 6 times 1:5 model of elastic ejection tests, five were successful.
1973: back on the 2nd stop research.
1974, May-June: 7 machine department and two congressional committees are holding back on the 3rd High-intercept missile weapon system program of seminars and technical coordination meeting, and supporting equipment to carry out the development and key technology research.
1977: back on the 3rd stop research.
1977: Completion of practice on the 2nd B in satellite design, anti-wei on the 1st and part of the overall design weapons systems, equipment, research and experiment, and both were successful.
1977: A zone of the program envisages the construction of Beijing and Tianjin, the General Assembly to carry out war and so on.
August 1979 -9 months: two made a successful counter-attack on the 1st model of missile flight test telemetry.
March 9, 1980: Anti-Wei on the 1st stop. "640" project temporarily suspended.
(Viii), not the outcome of the outcome of
In March 1980, "Anti-Health One," to stop the development, shortly after then-Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping ordered the suspension of the entire 640 program. In 1999, a short-lived local decryption 640 plan, China will continue to maintain silence.
Nearly 30 years later, January 11, 2010, China carried out in the middle of a land-based anti-missile interception technology test, test to achieve the desired purpose. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said the test was defensive in nature, not directed against any country.
"March 9, 1980: Anti-Wei on the 1st stop. "640" project temporarily suspended. "