Saturday, January 16, 2010

640 Project

China 640 Project decryption: the little-known national missile defense project (Figure)
[Military commander commonplace]
01-12 11:11

China's missile defense program with the anti-satellite warfare program in time can be roughly divided into three phases the first phase of the sixties the "640 Project", including the national missile defense system and theater missile defense systems and anti-satellite combat systems. The second stage is the eighties of the "863 Program", the main and basic technical feasibility demonstration and technical reserves. Since the late nineties the third phase has the face of the U.S. nuclear blackmail and the threat of satellite weapons, armaments, mainly carried out against the U.S. missile defense program and feasibility study and program planning.

(A), Origin

The late fifties of last century, the whole atmosphere of the Cold War, the Earth has been completely enveloped; between the two camps, it has long been eyeing. Which led to the Cold War, the so-called "balance of terror" phenomenon of the most important factor, is none other than nuclear deterrence. More than 10 years ago, the world has experimented with nuclear weapons, "style"; one of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, one has become a milestone in the history of mankind atomic energy development. Affected by this stimulus, the ability of countries in the development of nuclear weapons; in NATO and the Warsaw Pact confrontation, and "capable of mutual assured destruction" background, but never Zhebing sword scabbard. By the late fifties, the Chinese are in a home and less abroad times. Internal problems first, not to mention, only saying that the international community, but also a lot of problems: a few years ago, the Korean War, has clearly defined the enemy of the United States led the West; and continued progress with the Sino-Soviet dispute, China and the socialist tradition camp, they are facing a complete break situation.

A blink of an eye to the sixties, "Great Leap Forward" after China, are rapidly recovered. However, the international situation at that time, but it did not turn for the better - if not worse words: this time, the Sino-Soviet Union has a complete breakdown of the Sino-Soviet border is already a massive gathering. Soviet and Chinese military exercises deduction, have proved a problem: the Soviet Union's mechanized army and tanks, army, just a few hours, you can by way of Zhangjiakou, pressed Beijing! For this reason, the possibility of Soviet offensive line, the Chinese armed forces are in layers of fortification. However, if the Soviet conventional attack is not, but use a new type of nuclear attack, how can I do?

If you choose the Soviet Union nuclear attack, I am afraid may not be just like the U.S. bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki when it was using only way to carry out bomb bomber - the world, has been the emergence of new delivery platform, which is equipped with long-range nuclear warheads ballistic missiles, medium-range ballistic missiles. The so-called "intercontinental ballistic missiles," the long-range ballistic missiles, full flight time, but 30-40 minutes. Medium-range ballistic missiles launched from Mongolia, hit Chinese territory, the whole time and even less than ten minutes. Moreover, the multiple independently targetable, lured by deception, mobility, etc. warheads way, there have been - in this case, there are no nuclear-armed China, can withstand a nuclear attack from the West or the North?

In fact, this is not a question of suspense; can or can not, must be carried out to resist - just because defense up "very difficult", do not go to defense Mody? Categorically do not have this reason!

(B), the opening

December 1963, heard a report on strategic weapons, after Chairman Mao Zedong instructed: atomic bombs, missiles, and in any case not more than anyone else Gaode. At the same time, we are also a defense strategy. Therefore, in addition to engaging in offensive weapons, but also engage in more defensive weapons. Two months later, February 6, 1964, this issue has once again been proposed by Mao Zedong; that day, he met with Qian, vice president of the five branches of the Ministry of Defense and some other scientist, who specifically addressed the anti-missile research question: "There is spear there is a shield, a small number of people engaged in food to eat, specifically study this issue, 5-year No, 10, 10 not, 15 years, the total wants to come out!. " Chairman Mao was referring to is China's "Anti-Ballistic Missile Project", code-named 640.

Ingenious's Mao Zedong of China's NMD (National Missile Defense), said that due to development of nuclear submarines and is familiar with the "ten thousand years." Shows that China's leaders in this matter on a great determination.

In early 1964 this instruction has since become known as the 640 directions - the corresponding anti-ballistic missile-related research planning, the project is code-named Project 640.

In order to implement the instructions 640, a month after the March 23 National Defense Science and Technology Commission held a ballistic missile defense science. To participate in the seminar, a total of 30 experts and leaders from the four planes, Ministry of Defense the five branches of the Ministry of Defense 10 Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, People's Liberation Army artillery and other units. This discussion will be made clear to the three possible ways of anti-missile, and have done a preliminary division of labor: the five branches of the Ministry of Defense is responsible for the anti-missile missiles, artillery Institute of Science is responsible for super-gun anti-missile, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics is responsible for the anti-missile laser. One of the super-gun anti-missile, in fact, a super anti-missile artillery abbreviation - but this project ultimately Whispering another home; on this issue, we later take your time.

August 14, 1964, Premier Zhou Enlai approved by Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals 7 as "anti-missile, anti-satellite research institute in general." 2 hospital was started in early 1964 preparatory work for the organization, and in 1970 demonstrated anti-satellite program.

One year later, May 10, 1965, the Central Office of the IPCC issued a "on the enemy's missile defense research issues," which called the Ministry of the four planes, five machine department, six machine department, the Ministry of seven aircraft, Chinese Academy of Sciences, artillery , XX Base (Note: This article is abbreviated), we must make the enemy's missile defense research, part of the unit's annual and long-term planning. Two months later, July 8, National Defense Science and Technology Commission to submit to the central post "on the anti-missile defense system research and development planning report" plans developed between 1973-1975 interception system, and to intercept test. August 27, the Central Committee of the 13th special meeting approved the report.

February 23, 1966, National Defense Science and Technology 640 project briefing meeting. In January 1967, China's military and scientific research within the system held a "640 Project" conference, identified the five sub-systems, code-named, the research unit of the division of labor, the system's development planning, etc., and decided to accelerate the missile range and anti-missile nuclear warheads Development. To propose a plan at the meeting in 73 years to around 75 years. The specific content has not yet declassified. There has been speculation the five engineering systems are: the lower back on the 1st of hypersonic interceptor missile system [ "rubber overshoes" technical concepts]; back on the 2nd low-level interceptor missile system [for combat]; back on the 3rd level interceptor missile system [two-tier interceptor system the concept of]; anti-wei on the 1st system [anti-satellite laser system]; strategic early warning system [such as the detection range of 2000-3000 km of 7010 phased array radar system, 110 single-pulse tracking radar systems, satellite tracking and control network, 180 radar, accurate measurement of single-pulse and "Yuan Wang" ship tracking and other guidance systems, computers and command center 108 B (C3I), ground facilities, etc.]), propose a plan developed in the years between 1973-1975 interception system, and to intercept tests, the meeting decided to speed up the Anti-Ballistic Missile Range and the development of anti-missile nuclear warheads.

(C), Pioneer supergun

640 receiving instructions Chairman Mao Qian, when he was vice president of the five branches of the Ministry of Defense. With 640 projects began to take shape, the entire Defense Department has evolved into the five branches of the Ministry of seven aircraft (aerospace industry); a matter of course, it became the second branch of the Seventh Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals. The protagonist of this article 640-2 project, which is super-cannon project is being landed on the shoulders of the two homes; specifically, fell on two homes Er Yi ○ Institute for the shoulders.

This Eryi ○ Institution, is the original one hundred tenth ○ an Institute of the PLA General Logistics Department; and National Defense Science and Technology The reason it has been classified into two homes by name, it works in order to 640-2. With the division of tasks, of course, that's fine; However, what is the how to use super-guns to counter the missile, but it became a real technical problems. Incoming nuclear warheads too fast, highly are too high, which determines the cannon fired to intercept warheads, and the flight speed must be fast enough, but must also be high enough to shoot high.

To address this issue, 210 conducted the first phase of exploration, the final proposed the "sub-caliber artillery shells intercept" option. Upon receipt of the second year of instruction 640, 210 on the 85-mm smoothbore gun tests were carried out. Corresponding measures taken after weighing 4 kg of the projectile, its velocity has reached 1,200 m / sec; while this rate, higher than 50% before conversion. However, for the Anti-Ballistic Missile, or not fast enough.

In the smoothbore gun firing sub-caliber shells tests, also studied the rocket afterburner shells, solid punch afterburner bomb tests. After two kinds of test materials, is now too little, can not be described here. The study is still continuing. Between 1966 and 1968, under the shadow of the Cultural Revolution (7 Ministry of Machine has been a huge shock, not to mention in this skip) ,640-2 project to move forward with another: 140 mm smoothbore gun, firing 18 kg weight of the warheads, the results achieved muzzle velocity 1600 m / s, shot high reached 74 km. This is a great leap forward - not only that, carried out in 140 artillery 11 48 hair test to prove: sub-caliber shells and reliable airframe structure, flight stability.

Dream of China's super-cannon, but also gradually clearer ... ...

Pioneer supergun

In January 1967, "640-2" project will hold a demonstration program; It was at this meeting, the Chinese program is to determine the super-cannon. Under the program, the super cannon design parameters are as follows:

Gunner 26 meters
155 tons of heavy artillery
Aperture unknown
Shells sub-caliber rockets
Weight 160 kg bomb
A muzzle velocity of 900 meters / sec
High fire unknown

The design goal is clear: to strive in 1969 to participate in interception "East Wind III" warhead tests. This door is without precedent in the history of China's super-cannon, was given a resounding name: Pioneer.

From the figure we can clearly see that Pioneer is fixed on the ground of the super-cannon. In addition, Pioneer long barrel, it is all three very unique stand - so cannon, the actual weight of the barrel takes very alarming; barrel in order to prevent sagging, the German Krupp often in the stretch on the an issue, while the Pioneer, then the use of technical support seem to be more easily achieved way.

For a super-cannon, the chassis is fixed, relatively low muzzle velocity, support-type barrel, from the tactics that can not be said to be very good; but take into account the Pioneer only be used to ground air defense, the enemy warhead inevitably fall from the sky, this program there is also a rational point. After all, the Pioneer and former super-artillery mission different from a cannon purely technical performance indicators to compare and easily biased.

In short, if we can complete the "high-altitude warhead hit" tasks, it is successful - from this perspective, Pioneer's design ideas, and there is no problem; On the home is not fit over the intercept a nuclear warhead, specifically, how operation, then with the Pioneer does not have relationship.

In order to intercept incoming warheads, a gun is clearly wrong with the way a bullet - if Dabu Zhao, I am afraid there will be no chance of a second firing. In order to effectively intercept, it must be within 20 kilometers altitude - otherwise, low-altitude explosions of nuclear warheads, they completely lost the meaning of interception - this time, single-shot non-controlled rocket-propelled grenades "quasi-head" has been Dacheng problem, the probability of interception can not be guaranteed. To this end, we must form a dense cannon group, while shooting. This means that, in order to achieve an effective block, this 155 tons of the Pioneer, we must make a lot of doors possible to achieve design goals.

Artillery projectile left the gun barrels, they Zaimo the whereabouts of one can interfere in the. Therefore, needed to adjust intercept ballistic super-cannon, the rocket is equipped with no control is extremely inappropriate. And if the artillery guidance system is installed, the whole artillery missiles would be used - although they are still artillery of. In this way, large-scale salvo of the blanket into a small-scale interception precision strike, its effect is much better. After much research later, naturally, the 210 has finally changed the research direction, from the artillery rockets, missiles, artillery instead. At the same time, the above study also proposed can be used to combat the low-altitude interception system, the purpose of some is to deal with conventional warheads. Missiles, artillery shells and the existing high-speed, high-precision missiles there, regardless of the level of block can be used.

Since then, China's super-cannon developed by the second phase, also from 1970, officially began.

The resulting new technical stumbling block; careful count, probably two. Only the first is the size of the problem. The early seventies, China, missiles, already has many forms, but to "small" to be able to into the gun barrels, may hard to find a suitable varieties.

The second only is the overload. People upstairs fall, the overload is a G; fighter to do tactical actions, and instant overload can reach 7-8 G; spaceship take-off and return the maximum transient overload can go to 10 G or so. The artillery, "bang" That's what, with the warhead to bear much overload?

Calculated according to the parameters of super-cannon, probably have to bear 5000-10000 G! Such a poor working environment, airframe structures, engines, electronic equipment and even the top of the development, have raised the harsh too daunting, almost harsh demands - at a time when the Chinese, there is no accumulated experience in this area. All, only to start from scratch to explore. The groping, you have a component to a. Starting from the gyro, acceleration table, servo system, amplifier, inverter machine, antenna, speed control, missile telemetry systems on the ... ... had to be tested.

Here, too, say one more thing: In the year environment, still able to adhere to the work of Chinese scientists is really admirable! Through unremitting efforts, and from 1000-5000 G, artillery experiments 210 researchers ultimately concluded that: some parts had been strengthened, they can withstand 3000-5000 G ultra-high overload - and the reinforcement approach to put it bluntly, is not a mystery, is to use their own wax, or epoxy casting insulation.

But the top, or not do. Gyro, it is the whole core of the missile components to determine their attitude, if gyro not, then how could it get? To solve this problem, 210, and Yi Siyi ○ Ministry of Electronics Industry in collaboration with the beginning pre-research Zhenliang rate gyro. The result is exciting, the trial out of Zhenliang rate gyro After several trials, successfully weathered the 3000-5000 G, several tests are completely normal, has now been finalized and equipment to other missile projects.

In this one, has won the National Invention Award.

Bomb changed, guns naturally need to change. This time, the idea of gun design has also changed significantly: In order to meet the requirements of low-altitude interceptor, interceptor does not require such a high pace of their work; to this end, the researchers selected non-recoilless rifle. Non-recoilless rifle, that is kind of like a bit like a rocket-propelled grenades, firing back a long flame spray gun. Because the propellant combustion, a large number of gas an outlet that, unlike in other years, as desperation artillery, only pushing the projectile death-defying run; Therefore, it fired a projectile, the speed was correspondingly lower down. 50 kg projectile, loaded into 200-mm recoilless rifle caliber free years, after the launch speed of 820 meters / second - the result of the acquisition, direct proof that a low chamber pressure, low-velocity non-recoilless rifle conventional design is feasible The.

On this basis, China's largest caliber gun was designed out - it was actually surprised to the caliber of 420 millimeters in no way inferior to some well-known super-cannon!

However, the information inside this gate which is called "China's most" of the introduction of fixed-trajectory gun, only this one.

Meanwhile, the corresponding recovery of projectiles have also done a study:

- 140-mm artillery shells at high overload recovery parachute tests, successfully;

- From 3000-15000 G, high overload environment, parachute recovery, the success rate of 100%;

- Projectile speed of 2-3 times the speed of sound when the parachute and successfully.

Several studies above and directly contributed to China's spacecraft, the progress of re-entry parachute recovery technology - in other words, today the success of Shenzhou VI, which also has a super cannon project credit ah! While researchers continue to study at the same time, the world situation is quietly changing.

In 1972, the United States and the Soviet Union signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Missile Treaty. This means that, through mutual restrictions "shield" the number and scope, to ensure that the "spear" is sharp, thereby ensuring the "balance of terror." Then, in 1975, the United States again has just completed an anti-missile defense area closed. And so on, can not fail to affect the decision-makers and participants in 640 projects.

3 months later in February 1978, two hospital submitted to the Ministry of Machine 7 "About Eryi ○ direction of the report of the Institute's mandate," and proposed the termination of the ABM supergun pre-research work. Also passed two months, April 26, 1978, seven aircraft Song Renqiong Minister conveyed to the two House Science Committee's views on national defense: the formation of a crack team to continue to explore multi-channel Anti-Ballistic Missile; requirements earmarking; other forces take offensive weapons research task.

So three sentences 640-2 has the size of the project team battle is much smaller.

Two months later, June 29, 1978, Deng Xiaoping, Vice-Chairman of the Central Committee meeting on post-secondary instruction: a study or to study can be left to some people continue to engage. This meeting clearly sets out the Department of Space 2 House of direction: to put power on the development of offensive weapons; ABM model developed by the task, adjusting for individual pre-ways to explore and research. March 19, 1980, according to the Ministry of National Defense Science and Technology Commission and seven machine decision ,640-2 project that is "super-gun anti-missile project," and finally stopped development and testing.

Development of China's super-cannon, to this end.

(D), counter-series of missiles

One counter-attack missile was then seven Ministry of Machine 2 Hospitals (now known as the China Aerospace Electromechanical Group, two homes, called Changfeng Electromechanical Technology Research and Design Institute) did not complete high-speed low-level anti-missile pilot projects.

Graphic: back on the 1st, back on the 3rd missile on the launch pad were raised to heaven, the defense of the motherland sky. It was a red era, full of glory and dreams. Counter-attack on the 1st to the counter-attack on the 3rd of China's "640" Project of the anti-ballistic missile system, part of the anti-missile missiles.

2 Hospital since 1964 began to organize teams, in August 1969 into an anti-missile, anti-satellite in general Institute, 10 were carried out within a few years anti-ballistic missile intercept test system with low system-wide strike on the 1st auxiliary equipment development. In August 1979 to September through production, assembly, testing, successfully carried out two bomb hair model flight test telemetry.

At the same time, due to Zhenbao Island in 1969 Sino-Soviet conflict, China began to universal access to quasi-war. In addition to digging, the anti-ballistic missile program has become urgent. In order to put into use as quickly as possible, China's first resorted to "counter-II" anti-missile system to intercept low-level test. 71 October to 72 years in April, China has carried out six missile 1:5 model experiments, five of which were successful. Adjustment of the mandate in 1973, stopped due to development;

1974, 5 ~ 6 months, seven aircraft and two House co-organized the Department held a counter-attack on the 3rd High-intercept missile weapon system program of seminars and technical coordination meeting, and supporting equipment to carry out the development and key technology research. Back on the 3rd in 1977 stopped the development, which have been successfully developed S-7 Large-board computer become a "fifth wind" strategic missiles and other types of ancillary facilities. At the same time, also completed the practice on the 2nd B in satellite design, anti-wei on the 1st (satellite ASAT) weapons systems, the overall design and some of the equipment development and testing, these tests were all successful; the construction of China's 60 years of conventional hypersonic wind 0.5 m hole there in order to "counter the" missile testing purposes. After the completion of 75 years, respectively, for the "East Wind", "counter", "waves," "Dawn," "Vanguard", "Dongsheng", "Red Flag" wind tunnel tests of various projects (from 95 years of publication "cave heavens and wind and thunder" a book). Now only the "Dongsheng" This strange code does not know what is useless to send, when things need to hypersonic hair is really small, Dongsheng ranked the dawn of the spacecraft with the red vanguard among the anti-aircraft missiles, but also the "East" prefix weapons , from the strategic importance of the sort seen in, perhaps this type of device orbital bombardment system. People's Liberation Army's military under the anti-missile project progress to the central authorities put forward the "zone program was conceived to Beijing."

(5), strategic early warning system

Series with the counter-attack the anti-missile interceptors than the 640 project's strategic early warning radar system developing rather smoothly. The radar system consists of two rated as the most of the radar in China: 7010 phased array radar and 110 mono-pulse tracking radar. Both are products of Nanjing Institute of Electronic Technology. Among them, the radar in 7010 started to develop for 70 years in May, some 72 years of experimental installation, 74 years put into use 76 years into full installation, 77 years completed. The radar can continuously track the 10 approved the above goals. 110 radar in 66 years started to develop, 77 delivered.

7010 phased array early warning radar is China's "640 Project" strategic early warning system one of the components. The radar in May 1970 approved the development. 7010 Radar Transmitter with four high-power multi-cavity klystron, with a total peak power of 10 MW, average power of 200 kW, electric scanning antenna array surface is wide and 40 meters high 20 meters, feed unit 8976, detection range of 3,000 km. 120 degrees in azimuth and elevation 2-80 degrees while airspace to search while tracking, continuous tracking batches of target computers equipped with the sizes of the full-stop real-time control, processing and computing. Using pulse compression, anti-side lobe, variable polarization and other anti-interference measures, a `some key components, ext using duplex redundancy, with the work of the whole machine condition monitoring system and fault display system. 1972, a small planar array antennas installation of equipment set up and the FBI. Radar is set at an altitude of more than 1.6 thousand meters on the slopes, after several years of effort on the eve of the 25th anniversary of National Day observed in outer space targets. In 1976 to conduct a comprehensive array antenna installation, commissioning, and operational.

This is built on the plateau Huang Yangshan Saibei cliff on the radar for the 7010 Northwest

7010 Radar underground command center

This is the abandoned 7010 radar. Appalling

110 single-pulse tracking radar is China's "640 Project" strategic early warning system one of the components, detection range of more than 2,000 km. From 1965 to 1970, China developed in 1959 based on 110, radar simulation carried out Cassegrain antenna single pulse, pulse compression, pulse-Doppler velocimetry, parametric amplifier, advanced computer applications, a large antenna structure and the turntable research, were technological breakthroughs and entered the implementation phase of the radar project. In 1977, China's first 110 ultra long-range tracking radar equipment units can be tracked more than 2,000 miles away in outer space non-cooperative targets, in our launch intercontinental rockets, satellites and other projects carried out several times in tracking foreign targets in outer space任务.

110 single-pulse long-range tracking radar

110 Radar, 7010 The successful development of radar, so that China has become the world's first large-scale three ultra-long-range tracking radar country.

640 works will include the building of strategic early warning system, in which stations south to Hainan Island, west to Kashgar in Xinjiang, Shandong, east Jiaodong. Command center is located in Weinan's "28" area. 28 ground-based observing system as a whole is the command center is equipped with the most comprehensive observation station, the original base for the missile tests, its facilities include a pre-telemetry stations, Recycle Bin, activity stations.

A project is completed, the six stations with Kashi Tianshan Station, Nanning Guijiang Station, Kunming Dianchi Lake Station, Hainan, South Island stations, Jiaodong Bohai Sea Station, Western Hunan station, then an additional code-named "Qinling" control computing station, code-named " Yangtze River "recycling stations, code-named" outposts ", the first activity stations, code-named" Yellow River "activity station and the second code-named" Great Wall "of Changchun station. Missile tracking and launch a number of stations needed coordination and control, which requires an extremely precise time-integration system to a unified time reference. Was then put this code-named "930" unified safety equipment when shipped back to base, the Chengdu Military Region of the People's Liberation Army sent an even pressure along the transport, the Ministry of Defense held a special permit, any person who cause trouble entrapment, shoot to kill.

At that time, these early-warning radar units are in a highly confidential state. Local people know there are a People's Liberation Army troops, but never on the people and local contacts, but also did not like the other People's Liberation Army forces to engage in "military-civilian joint construction" of the types of activities, and even force Which military services have trouble is not clear, only to see the bare base's enormous spherical radome, so the locals put this mysterious force known as the "big ball unit."

After 1977, the completion of these two giant radar on many occasions China's missiles, and satellite observation mission; in counter-attack on the 1st anti-ballistic missile test, the missile body is only 10 seconds away from the frame was firmly grasp it, and stable tracking, rapid prediction impact point for the rocket, made an important contribution to anti-missile tests; an accurate forecast of the United States in 1979, "Sky Lab" Fall; in May 1980, it issued two Dongfeng-5-type ICBM full trial, respectively of the X16 seconds and X96-second tracking data, the furthest distance of 3,000 kilometers of track; July 18, 1981, 7010 radar receive and Industry for National Defense, director of the then Chief of Staff Zhang Min a telephone, calls for 19, the Soviet Union launched the Pacific launch vehicle tracking. 7010 consecutive start for 11 days, on 19 and 28, the two observed two launch vehicles, the timely launch point and impact point prediction of the latitude and longitude, warning time and range. From the measurement data analysis, two missiles with multiple warheads, the Soviet Union unpublished pilot project, the form of a low-trajectory launch, apparently in order to test the accuracy of sub-missile guidance heads. After engaging in other channels available information shows that 7010 observations are correct.

January 12, 1983 received a higher-level instructions to observe and intercept are dangerous to the Earth's 1402 fall of the Soviet Union nuclear-powered satellite. However, due to non-disclosure of the Soviet side the satellite orbital parameters, 110, huge rotating radar antenna, continuous work four and a half hours, remained in the needle in the haystack, nothing. Until the first 3 days, Kunming station to track the target only to the timely notification Zhanyi station. Under the notification of the orbital parameters, 18 and 19, the two start a continuous capture Zhanyi the target, and can identify the three objectives, as the 1402A, 1402B, 1402C.

January 22, 1983, Zhang Min, chief of staff to call the station and asked about the pieces of The Fall of the Soviet spy satellite time and place. Central government was already in power positions to make the country X interceptors, in case the satellite fell into my densely populated areas, be sure, in its fallen before their interception, destroyed, protecting people's lives and property. Day noon, Zhanyi station BX-10 computer through the solution of calculation, arrived at 1402A Fall of time at 4:00 on January 24 to between 8 am and will be reported in this projection of Science, Technology. At 5:00 on January 24, Zhanyi station also reported that out of the stars, the exact time of re-entry at 6:30 on the 24th place for the longitude 67.9 degrees north latitude and 1.1 degrees, do not fall into the territory of China! It was placed under the leadership of the Central Military Commission and the heart. The actual fall of 1402 satellite stations longer than the forecast Zhanyi just nine minutes earlier, the displacement error of 3.4 thousand kilometers.

U.S. North American Aerospace Defense Command, the forecasting time than accurate, than the actual time was within 1 minute, but the displacement error of tens of thousands of kilometers, the scope of China's big three times the forecast! This shows that the radar early-warning capacity in China at that time reached the world advanced level. By the monitoring network in charge of our satellites, has also made 15 successful launches 14 recycling success.

(6), a comprehensive ocean-going tracking ship space

4: "Yuan Wang Number One", "Yuan Wang II" ship is the first generation of a comprehensive ocean-going tracking ship space, is mainly responsible spacecraft measurement, control, communications, and salvage recovery task is to China's space tracking and control network of the important components section. Two sister ships in 1965 by the National Defense Science and Technology Commission approval, 1967 by the Shanghai 708 Research Institute began to demonstrate the design, in September 1976 started the construction of the Jiangnan Shipyard, 1977, 8,10 On the completion of the water, to Chairman Mao's hand-written poems of Ye Jianying, " Yuanwang "named -" Yuan Wang 1 "," Yuan Wang 2 ". Boat length 191 meters, 22.6 meters wide ship, the ship 38 meters high, with an average depth of 7.5 meters, full load displacement of 21,157 tons. "Yuan Wang I" ship in the last 30 years, Daohai test days, the course of ever playing football arrows, 41 times across the oceans and marine operations and nearly 1,500 days, total range of more than 270,000 sea miles, has 38 successfully completed the satellite, the spacecraft and other major state-level scientific research and experiments. "Yuan Wang II" has 28 ships cross the ocean, safe navigation nearly 400,000 sea miles (equivalent to 20 laps around the earth), 20 docked in foreign ports, the successful completion of 31 major scientific research and experiments, setting China's space ocean monitoring and control in the history of "six of the most", "four for the first time" (the most complete implementation of the task model, the highest frequency sea, maritime longest continuous monitoring and control, task switching time, the shortest stop outer most times, the total range as far as the first times bear the sea of foreign satellite launches measurement tasks, the first time the satellite sea control, the first successful use of joint-control technology Attitude s major attitude adjustment on the satellite, the first stop outer), etc. records.

Yuanwang No.

Yuanwang II

"Yuan Wang IV" ship was in August 1998 by the original "Xiang Yang Hong No. 10," space converted ocean-going tracking ship, the main responsible for maritime satellite and spacecraft tracking, telemetry, communications, and control tasks. The "Xiangyanghong 10" boat for the long-range rockets of our full flight test (code 718 works) developed the first large-scale comprehensive study of marine science and ocean-going communications ship and marine engineering from the China Ship Design and Research Institute and Jiangnan Shipyard in February 1971 began to study the design, construction started in July 1975, delivered in October 1979, has completed China's first launch vehicle test to the Pacific Ocean, the first Antarctic expedition and Antarctic Great Wall Station Jianzhan task, for the first time the South Pacific Ocean tasks such as scientific exploration and achieved fruitful results. The vessel has 10 decks, with nearly 7,000 tons of steel, nearly 9,000 units installed equipment, the laying of pipelines near 29 km, laying cable about 190 kilometers, and its construction is equivalent to 3 million-ton capacity vessels.

China's first self-designed and manufactured a 10000-ton large-scale ocean science integrated research ship

On board in addition to a general comprehensive marine survey ship all of the various instruments and experimental work outdoors, it also boasts: large-scale ship-borne helicopters, the system can meet a "Super Hornet" helicopter for use at sea a long-term requirements; Meteorological Center system which can bear the consequences of short-term weather forecasts and hazardous weather warnings; all-weather ocean communications systems, can protect the multi-network large-capacity data communication and relay the day Hou special letter;-power Ocean Marine acoustic systems, could be a long continuous sound of ocean water test and sonar equipment testing; dive boat working the system. The vessel was awarded the Year 1979 National Defense Science and Technology Commission of major scientific and technological achievements overall design of the first prize in 1985, won the National Scientific and Technological Progress of China's first Grand Prize Award.

(G), 640 Chronology of major events engineering

December 1963: Mao Zedong launched the initiative of defense strategy.
February 6, 1964: a clear vision put forward defense strategy.
1964: two hospital organizations, the development team.
1964-1966: National Defense Science and Technology, etc. is envisaged that from 1973 to 1975, developed a test system.
October 1967: "640" project meeting, that "five system of the code, and to speed up the construction of anti-missile test range and carrying out anti-ballistic missile with a nuclear warhead development work and recommendations."
August 14, 1969: Zhou Enlai instructed the Ministry of two homes bear the seven anti-aircraft missile development.
August 1969: Second homes as an anti-missile, anti-satellite research institute in general, to fight back on the 1st full-system development.
1970: two homes on the 2nd low-altitude interceptor weapon system programs to counter demonstration and development work.
October 1971 -1,972 years in April: counter-attack on the 2nd to 6 times 1:5 model of elastic ejection tests, five were successful.
1973: back on the 2nd stop research.
1974, May-June: 7 machine department and two congressional committees are holding back on the 3rd High-intercept missile weapon system program of seminars and technical coordination meeting, and supporting equipment to carry out the development and key technology research.
1977: back on the 3rd stop research.
1977: Completion of practice on the 2nd B in satellite design, anti-wei on the 1st and part of the overall design weapons systems, equipment, research and experiment, and both were successful.
1977: A zone of the program envisages the construction of Beijing and Tianjin, the General Assembly to carry out war and so on.
August 1979 -9 months: two made a successful counter-attack on the 1st model of missile flight test telemetry.
March 9, 1980: Anti-Wei on the 1st stop. "640" project temporarily suspended.

(Viii), not the outcome of the outcome of

In March 1980, "Anti-Health One," to stop the development, shortly after then-Vice Premier Deng Xiaoping ordered the suspension of the entire 640 program. In 1999, a short-lived local decryption 640 plan, China will continue to maintain silence.

Nearly 30 years later, January 11, 2010, China carried out in the middle of a land-based anti-missile interception technology test, test to achieve the desired purpose. The Chinese Foreign Ministry said the test was defensive in nature, not directed against any country.
"March 9, 1980: Anti-Wei on the 1st stop. "640" project temporarily suspended. "

China’s Anti-Ballistic Missile Threat

China’s Anti-Ballistic Missile Test: Much Ado About Nothing
Air Power Australia - Australia's Independent Defence Think Tank

Air Power Australia NOTAM
14th January, 2010
Dr Martin Andrew, RAAF (Retd)

Sunday, January 3, 2010

PLAAF have a 5 generations

"I would contend that in the past decade or so, China has exceeded most of our intelligence estimates of their military capability and capacity every year. They've grown at an unprecedented rate in those capabilities."
--Admiral Robert F. Willard, Commander, U.S. Pacific Command, October 21, 2009

1- J-10B
Yu Xiao-Quan
2009-11-23 15:48:26 Source: Xinhua News Agency
【Font Size: Big Middle Small】 【Print】 【I】 I would like to correction
【Email Recommendation:】

Xinhua News Agency, Beijing, November 23 (Reporter Sun Maoqing) - Relevant responsible persons of the Air Force 23, said the recent media reports of "four generations of machine" refers to the improved F -10 series aircraft.

For the combat aircraft of the designated representatives of state, the world's major military powers are not consistent. The United States will be highlighted in the low-altitude, sub-transonic maneuverability of the F-15, F-16 fighters are divided into three generations of machines, will feature stealth, supersonic cruise and ultra-mobile performance F-22, F-35 fighter plane is divided into four generations of machines . Russia will be Mig -29, Su -27/30 divided into three generations of fighter aircraft, the Su -35 aircraft, such as an improved third-generation machine is divided into four generations of machines, will have a stealth, supersonic cruise, and a new generation of ultra-mobility fighter plane is divided into five generations.

The official said that China's combat aircraft primarily in the introduction, imitation on the basis of Russian-made equipment, the independent innovation and development, the media calls "four generations of machine" refers to an improved F -10 series aircraft. (End)

J-15/J-13,had its first flight.
Chinese designers have reportedly already developed some components, such as landing gear configurations that allow for the higher sink rates required for a carrier-capable aircraft. The J-13 is projected to fly sometime around 2013.