Sunday, September 20, 2009

Thursday, September 17, 2009

The Chinese Navy and the Russian Aircraft Carriers

The Chinese Navy and the Russian Aircraft Carriers

By Andrei Pinkov

After a careful review of its development in the past five years, it is not difficult to find that the Chinese navy has a special interest in aircraft carriers. The "Climensau" of France, the "Vayarg" and "Minsk" of Russia, and the light aircraft carrier designed by the Spaniard Bazan were all reported to be related to China. The speculations of the reporters were not groundless because Russia's "Minsk" has "already settled down" in China and the "Vayarg" is reported to arrive in Macao next year.

Due to limited funds, there exists a dispute in the Chinese navy between those who are advocating giving priority to the development of aircraft carriers and those who believe nuclear submarines should claim the first priority. In a special report, the PLA (PLA: People Liberation Army) Liberation Army Daily indicated on March 20, 1996 that the 21st century is a period when the arsenal warships and aircraft carriers and "island of war" share equal importance.

Contrary to those who take a cautious attitude towards the development of aircraft carriers, some young and vigorous naval officials maintain that the warships and aircraft carriers of a higher tonnage should be built.

The construction of aircraft carriers seems to have become the basic mutual understanding of the young and vigorous naval officials. For example, in his special article entitled "the Dream of the Chinese Aircraft Carriers", Captain Cao Xuegui from the No.108 destroyer of "Luda" class, (who graduated from the Boatswain Class of Dalian Naval Vessel College and from the Captain Class of Guangzhou Naval Vessel College) indicates that the necessity of building aircraft carriers lies in the fact that a mobile "battlefield on the sea" is needed in case of war in the South China Sea. In addition, the Taiwanese authorities now engaging in arms expansion and the activities for the independence of Taiwan run rampant. In a special discussion, the captain of frigate No. 537 believes: "it is a top priority to build or import aircraft carriers and this necessity is not man-made, but arises from the realistic situation of war". However, he admits: "it still requires quite a long period of time before this goal can be reached and this goal will hardly be achieved in the near future".

In fact, for a large country, the feasibility study for development of aircraft carriers is far more complex than one can predict. As early as the period of the third 5-year plan, the Soviet Union worked out the "Great plan"("Balishaya Pulogulama" ) on the basis of its "active offshore defense" theory, with an emphasis on the development of a heavy-duty fleet including aircraft carriers. It was because the 2nd World War broke out that this plan was delayed. The active advocate for the "Balishaya Pulogulama" was the then-naval People's Councilor Kutsnietsov. He tried hard to oppose the theory of "small fleet, small wars" proposed by the Orlov naval People's Councilors after 1927. The "Balishaya Pulogulama" advocated the balanced development of large modern warships,a naval air force, and a marine corps. Its theoretical basis is undoubtedly largely similar to that on which the Chinese scholars today propose building the navy for the "active offshore defence". In 1952 after the war, Stalin set the "plan for the construction of a large oceangoing navy". However, after his death, Kruchev's theory of giving priority to the development of rockets and nuclear submarines occupied the dominant position. In that time, aircraft carriers had to temporarily give way. Should people believe that China's current situation is, more or less, similar to the period of the early Kruchev's administration? This is because the theory of prioritizing nuclear submarines holds that nuclear submarines are irreplaceable compared to aircraft carriers. This is because if a situation in which a possible fund shortage were to occur, the nuclear submarine can provide a high capability of seclusion and nuclear deterrence. In addition, without being covered by the long-range underwater forces (nuclear submarines), aircraft carriers may become moving caskets on the water in the epoch of highly developed ship-to-ship missiles. This is also the major concern of those in the Chinese navy who take a cautious attitude toward the development of aircraft carriers.

Even during Kruchev's time, which focused on the development of missiles and nuclear submarines, the Soviet navy never gave up the feasibility study of aircraft carriers and thought that it was just a matter of time to own them. Different from China, the Soviet Union spent a very short period of time on the theoretical feasibility study. In 1962, the Soviet Union officially started to build 14000 ton light-class helicopter carriers, called "Moscow". It served as a material object for the study of its manufacturing techniques, its applications, and its performance in the combined operations. The construction of the Kiev (first one of the "Minsk" class aircraft carriers) was officially started in 1970, while that of the "Vayarg" class was officially started in 1982. The construction of these three types of the aircraft carriers reflects the different operational thinking that S.G. Gorshkov had. Soon after Gorshkov took office in 1958, he decided that the mission of the navy was to apply the "tactical role" which mainly relied on ship-to-ship attacks. It included defending the Soviet strategic nuclear submarines and sea routes as well as destroying the enemy's sea routes. These three tasks had much to do with the anti-submarine mission. Therefore, the most important task of the "Moscow" helicopter carrier was that of an anti-submarine role. Its construction was the victory of those who supported the development of nuclear submarines rather than that of those who were in favor of aircraft carriers.

The "Moscow" aircraft carrier undertook the tactical task of defending the Soviet strategic nuclear submarines and sea routes as well as destroying the sea routes of the enemy. It is worth noting that these strategic tasks are also the new operational thinking the Chinese navy, which had been hoping to reach in recent years under three repeatedly emphasized guiding ideologies. These ideologies are "that the sea is a strategic base", "that Taiwan should be blockaded", and "that the more effective second nuclear counterattack capability should be established".

In the early 1970s, Gorshkov hoped to fly the flags of the Soviet navy in every corner of the five continents and the four oceans in the world. In this case, the operational mission of the Soviet navy shifted from the tactical role that mainly relied on ship-to-ship attack to the "strategic position" which emphasized ship-to-ground attack while taking account of ship-to-ship attack. The new task was to hit the strategic targets and facilities on land and to attack the strategic conglomerations on the sea like an aircraft carrier fleet. "The navy is no longer only used for ship-to-ship attacks, its major use now is to attack the inland strategic strongholds of the enemy from the sea". The attack was carried out mainly by the combined operations of underwater heavy-duty SSBNs, multi-purpose SSGNs, and aircraft carrier fleets. Under the guidance of this strategic thinking, the mission of the "Vayarg" aircraft carrier was to use the large number of its long-range ship-to-ship and ship-to-air missiles that it carried and to cooperate with large missile cruisers, SSGNs, and SSBNs for the purpose of completely destroying the enemy's aircraft carrier fleet and SSGNs. Finally, the "Vayarg" aircraft carrier combat group was used to cover the SSGNs, which launched an attack from an off-shore area to the inland strategic target of the enemy with conventional cruise missiles similar to the SS-N-21. In the meantime, if necessary, the SS-N-19 ship-to-ship missiles which the "Vayarg" aircraft carrier carried had a range of 555 kilometers that could also be launched from the sea to attack vessels berthed at an enemy naval port.

As for the "Minsk" class, which happened to be built at the time between the appearances of both types of aircraft carriers, had two operational principles. It had to have very outstanding characteristics that reflected "transitionally" and in accordance with "the consideration of the two principles". It needed both to fulfill the naval combat and tactical task in the mode of ship-to-ship attacks and to undertake the "strategic applications" of ship-to-ship and ship-to-ground attacks. Therefore, it had the missions of fighting the enemy submarines, attacking the strategic conglomeration of the enemy's aircraft carriers, and hitting the enemy's naval strategic facilities on land as well as its vessels berthed at naval bases. The equipment of the "Minsk" class aircraft carrier fully reflected the above intentions of the Soviet navy in that period of time. This means "equipping the aircraft carrier with anti-submarine missiles (SUW-N-1), long-range anti-warship missiles (SS-N-12 with a range of 555 kilometers), and air defense missiles as long as it is possible to do so. The more fully equipped, the better".

With the strategic operational missions of attacking the enemy's strategic targets (mainly naval bases) on land and its strategic conglomerations at sea, the "Vayarg" aircraft carrier is, to a large extent, not suitable for today's Chinese navy.

First of all, the major target of the Chinese navy is Taiwan. As the Chinese naval base is geographically close to Taiwan, it is not necessary for China to resort to aircraft carriers or large warships on water to attack the inland targets of Taiwan. At the most, considering the involvement of the USA, China needs to use the long-range missiles to launch a ship-to-ship attack on the US aircraft carriers. This is different from the Soviet navy that owned a strong warship fleet. The Chinese navy, due to the lack of the superiority both on water and in the air, may expect that nuclear submarines are more secluded and can be used to attack US aircraft carriers if the Chinese operational thinking deems it necessary to do so. Just because it is weak in its combat effectiveness both on water and in the air, China has never stopped its study to find out how to equip its aircraft carriers with a strong ship-to-ship and ship-to-air missile capability. For example, Captain Cao Xuegui of the No.108 "Luda"-class destroyer, advocates building a 15000 ton light-duty nuclear power-driven aircraft carrier which has a carrying capacity of various combat aircraft and is equipped with ship-to-ship and ship-to-air missiles, fully automatic 100mm and 30mm cannons, advanced C3I and electronic warfare system.

On the basis of the above discussions, in terms of the distribution of fighting tasks, the Chinese navy still prefers to use the "Moscow" and "Minsk" class aircraft carriers for the goal it expects an aircraft carrier to achieve. The main goal of the Chinese navy is to ensure the safety of the navigation channel and its nuclear submarines as well as to destroy the enemy's sea routes while maintaining the anti-submarine task as the priority. In the meantime, the secondary goal also includes accomplishing "appropriately" the strategic task of launching a ship-to-ship attack to eliminate the large fleets of the enemy.

In terms of the distribution of the fighting tasks, the Chinese navy is still inclined to believe that the purpose it determined for the aircraft carriers is more similar to that of the tactical task designed for the "Moscow" and "Minsk" aircraft carriers. These purposes being giving priority to the task of anti-submarine, safeguarding their own navigation channels and nuclear submarines, destroying the enemy's sea routes, and in due course accomplishing the strategic task of launching a ship-to-ship attack in order to wipe out large enemy fleets.

Obviously, as far as the fighting tasks are concerned, not a single one of the three above-mentioned classes of the Soviet aircraft carriers, (i.e. the "Moscow", the "Minsk", and the "Vayarg", can fully and completely meet the combat needs of the Chinese navy. However, the assimilation of the advantages of each of the Soviet aircraft carriers will not only provide a complete understanding of the whole development process, but will also enable the Chinese to follow the train of thought the Soviet designers had in designing all of these three aircraft carriers. The Chinese can make use of these strong points in the development of their own aircraft carriers. This is why China also holds a high expectation for the "Minsk" and the "Vayarg".

The excuse China used for the purchase of the above two aircraft carriers was that they would be for the uses of recreation, disassembly, and waste steel recycling. A careful analysis will show that this excuse was not totally unreasonable. First of all, if these aircraft carriers are used for the purpose of disassembly, they are really of some commercial value as China has been looking for waste steel on the international market. On the other hand, the understanding of how to disassemble them means a more direct experience in how to make aircraft carriers. Furthermore, as the design drawings are required for the disassembly, China can easily request them from Russia and the Ukraine. A company from Macao purchased the "Vayarg" aircraft carrier for only 20 million US dollars. In fact, it takes several million dollars to have a Western ship building company design a new aircraft carrier and provide the relevant technical advice. It is easy to see the benefits from the deal.

In the aspect of "recreation", since the "Minsk" aircraft carrier arrived in Guangdong, the private company that purchased it has attracted a large number of visitors. It is easy to see that at least in appearance, the carrier was not directly purchased by the military. However, it may be the case where the private company spent the money but priority is given to the military research if needed. Normally, the "Minsk" has been used to satisfy the craving for aircraft carriers "fun" in China. This helps increase its commercial value and meet the market tendency of commercialization in the Chinese society. In the meantime, this civilian-military combination also saves military expenditures and helps to reduce the handles by which the "View of China's Threat" is held by some countries. According to the pictures of the "Minsk" aircraft carrier in China, it can be determined that the real condition of this aircraft carrier is much worse than one could imagine. All the combat weapons, the launchers, the electronic equipment, and the power system have been taken away. The aircraft carrier was towed to Guangdong by a tugboat from Korea. Due to the many years of corrosion by sea water, its hull is rusted and its outside structure is seriously damaged. Only the inside structure remains complete. Its military value is, at the most, limited to the on-the-spot study of its basic structure, layout design, and welding techniques, etc.

The news is true that the Chinese military has long been hoping to obtain the design drawings of the "Minsk" aircraft carrier. Remarks from Russian navy sources has proved the news to be true in 1993. At that time, Western military observers once predicted that China hoped to buy the "Minsk" aircraft carrier. Later, it was believed that Korea's purchase of it was nothing but a scheme and that the carrier would be moved to China before long. It is said that Russia's prerequisite for the sales of its design drawings was that China would purchase the scrapped aircraft carrier for a low price. Evidently, it is the design drawings themselves that the Chinese military were really interested in. This is because China needs the help in the aspect of the design concept during the feasibility study of the aircraft carrier. For the same reason, China also contacted the Spanish Bazan Shipyard in February of 1995 about sending the supply of design drawings for the AC200 aircraft carrier to China. In an exclusive interview earlier this year with the business official of the Bazan Shipyard in Malaysia by the author, he was quoted as saying that the talks had ended up with nothing definite.

The Chinese effort to actively look for aircraft carriers and their design drawings on the international market shows that the Chinese navy is further exploring the possibility of developing aircraft carriers on its own. It also shows that China hopes to become a country that can produce small and medium-sized aircraft carriers in order to enter the international aircraft carrier manufacturing market, especially in South-east Asian and South American countries. ( KWIC)

Tuesday, September 15, 2009

Chinese military aircraft carrier "heart"

振奋人心:中国军队航母“心脏”即将跳动(2009-09-14 14:08:08)

资料图:沈阳一航动力所和一航黎明研制的可作为航母发动机的R0110重型燃气轮机模型。

中国早在02年10月开始研发的R0110重型燃气轮机,已在上个月获得突破性进展。该轮机可用作中型常规航空母舰主动力机组。

报道指出,中国国家科技部副部长曹健林在今年二月二十一日,率领一批专家团,前往渖阳,考察R0110重型燃气轮机的设计和制造状况。

目前,燃机零件已经完成,即将进入装配阶段;试车台各系统也已完成调整。预计今年三月完成整机装配,四月进行点火测试验收。

报道称,研发预算五亿人民币的R0110轮机组,是大陆自主研发的第一台重型燃气轮机,也让大陆成为全球第五个具备重型燃气轮机研发能力的国家。


该轮机的输出功率拥有十五万匹马力,比一万吨级的日本金刚级(神盾)驱逐舰的十万匹马力还大,可作为中型常规航空母舰的主动力来源。

根据去年八月加拿大报道,中国已启动航空母舰建造工程(解放军称为 “特种大型军用船舶”)。当时报道即称,中国已向俄罗斯购买四套“苏恺卅三”舰载战机使用的尾勾。同时,解放军也在确认生产航母系统的厂商。此意味,航母的总体设计、基础供电、发电机组的设计工作,已经完成,即将生产。


去年三月,中国外交部发言人曾证实,大陆正进行有关航母的研发。解放军的一位海军副司令也说,中国将在2012年建造出第一艘航空母舰。

重型燃气轮机是洁净高效发电的重大动力机械装备,微型燃气轮机是分布式供能系统的核心装备。“十五”期间,燃气轮机重大专项设立了重型燃气轮机和微型燃气 轮机两个研制项目。沈阳黎明航空发动机集团、哈尔滨东安发动机集团等大型国有企业,联合清华大学、中科院工程热物理所、中国燃气涡轮研究院等科研单位,以 产学研合作方式,开展联合攻关。


  通过重型燃气轮机的研发,初步形成了自主设计和制造重型燃气轮机的能力,带动了材料,先进制造等领域的创新。11万千瓦重型燃气轮机填补了有自主知识产权重型燃气轮机的空白,并具有明确的产业化前景。


  通过100千瓦级微型燃气轮机的研发,培养了独立研发微型燃气轮机及其热电联供系统关键技术和产品的队伍,使我国成为了掌握微型燃气轮机设计,制造技术并具有成套能力的国家。


  美国尼米兹级航空母舰的发动机总功率是19.4万千瓦,单论功率来说R0110完全可以作为我国研制的航母的动力。


  这标志着我国舰用燃气轮机又向前迈了一大步。接下来服役的大型军舰上将有可能装备我们自己研发的燃气轮机,我们的军舰将不用再依靠进口外国的燃气轮机.


: Chinese military aircraft carrier "heart" will beat (2009-09-14 14:08:08)
Tags: Military aircraft carrier, Chinese military gas turbine aircraft carrier

Data Figure: Shenyang, and an aircraft powered by an aircraft developed by the dawn as a heavy-duty gas turbine aircraft engine model R0110.

China as early as in October 2002 began the development of the R0110 heavy-duty gas turbines, has received a breakthrough in the last month. The turbine can be used as active medium-sized conventional aircraft power unit.



Reported that China's State Science and Technology Vice Minister Cao Jianlin February 21 this year, led a group of experts missions to Shenyang, visit R0110 heavy-duty gas turbine design and manufacture of the situation.


At present, gas turbine components has been completed and about to enter the assembly stage; test sets each system has to adjust. Is expected to be completed in March this year, machine assembly, acceptance testing in April to conduct the ignition.



Reported that the R & D budget of 500 million yuan of the R0110 wheel unit is China's first self-developed heavy-duty gas turbines, but also so that the mainland has become the world's fifth with heavy-duty gas turbine research and development capabilities.


The turbine output power has 150,000 horsepower, more than 10000 ton Japanese Diamond level (Aegis) destroyers hundred thousand horsepower is also large and medium-sized conventional aircraft carrier can be used as the active power source.



According to Canada in August last year, reported that China has started construction of an aircraft carrier (People's Liberation Army known as the "special large-scale military vessels"). Reported that at that time that China has purchased four sets of the Russian "Su-Sasan" carrier-based warplanes to use the tail hook. At the same time, the PLA has also confirmed that production of carrier systems vendors. This means that the carrier's overall design, basic electricity, generators of the design work has been completed and ready for production.




Last year, in March, the Chinese Foreign Ministry spokesman has confirmed that China is carrying out research and development related to an aircraft carrier. People's Liberation Army deputy commander of a Navy also said that in 2012 China will build a first aircraft carrier.



Heavy-duty gas turbine is a clean and efficient power generation a major power machinery and equipment, micro-gas turbine is the core of a distributed power supply system and equipment. "Tenth Five-Year" period, the establishment of heavy-duty gas turbine gas turbine major projects and micro-gas turbine 2 research project. Shenyang Liming Aero-Engine Group, the Harbin Dongan Engine Group and other large state-owned enterprises, joint Tsinghua University, Chinese Academy of Engineering Thermal Physics, Chinese Academy of gas turbine and other scientific research units to production and research cooperation, joint research.


Through the heavy-duty gas turbine research and development, initially formed a self-designed and manufactured heavy-duty gas turbine capacity, driven materials, advanced manufacturing, and other areas of innovation. 110,000 kilowatts heavy-duty gas turbines have independent intellectual property rights to fill gaps in heavy-duty gas turbines and has a clear prospect of the industry.


Through 100 kW micro-gas turbine research and development, foster an independent R & D micro-gas turbine combined heat and power supply system and its key technologies and products team, so that China has become a master micro-gas turbine design, manufacturing technology and has a complete set of capabilities.


U.S. Nimitz-class aircraft carrier engine total power was 19.4 kilowatts, one-on power for the R0110 can be used as the driving force of China's aircraft carrier developed.


This indicates that China's marine gas turbine a major step forward. The next service will be the possibility of large ships equipped with our own research and development of gas turbines, and our ships will no longer need to rely on imports of foreign gas turbines.



Monday, September 7, 2009

new aircraft static test of XXJ ?????

At 14:30 on August 6, deputy general manager of China Aviation Industry Gengru light, Project Office Director Lu Jie, director of his party in the strength of Sun Xia-sheng, deputy director and chief designer strong Bao-ping, deputy secretary of Party Committee and other relevant personnel Meng Fanjun accompanied



Before the first flight of a new aircraft static test of the success of the whole machine! ! !



At 14:30 on August 6, deputy general manager of China Aviation Industry Gengru light, Project Office Director Lu Jie, director of his party in the strength of Sun Xia-sheng, deputy director and chief designer strong Bao-ping, deputy secretary of Party Committee and other relevant personnel Meng Fanjun Accompanied by Yaozhou came to the test base, in relation to a first flight before the aircraft static test of the whole machine to conduct on-site inspection and guidance.


Geng, vice president and his entourage first listened to the strength of Sun Xia, director of Health on a certain type of aircraft, static test of the whole machine a work report, the Director Sun Xia-sheng, deputy director and chief Qiang Bao-Ping Shi answered questions in detail. Then, Sunsuo Zhang Geng, vice president and his entourage, accompanied by down to the test site, watched a certain type of aircraft, the last one before the first flight the whole plane static test the entire process. When the test is successful, Geng, vice president and his party, said the three parties involved in the tests and involved in the tests congratulations and posed for pictures.



The aircraft first flight before the full completion of static test aircraft will provide a strong guarantee for its first flight on schedule.



"I still hold partly concealed"

http://translate.google.com/translate_t#


oogle translated ps China military media is field with disinformation you should take with grain salt.

new comprehensive vertical reference to the Chinese Air Force stealth fighter


The Air Force's main production equipment, research and development unit of the China Aviation Corporation. On July 1, 1999 Aviation Industry Corp in some key enterprises, and institutions based on the formation. The company was set up, a large number of experts on the organization. "before and after the 2020 aviation equipment development strategy" for the scientific proof. And on this basis, in the aviation engines, aerodynamic, fire control of the area in 2020 after 13 professional development goals. And proposed "the generation of improved production, generation development, research generation, exploration generation" of major aviation equipment development, and the adoption of new "four generations" of equipment, Air Force equipment with a view to the future and continuing to lay a solid foundation for development by leaps and bounds.


Production of a generation : "!--sk-->
China is currently the main production / generation combat aircraft to improve flight : Shen Jian--8B/C/D/F/H. F-11, F-F--11B; CAC Fighter, the F-10, F-10 Fighter / coach; 6-7 West fly-bombers, -7A-bombers, such as the new H-6. Among them, using the F--8B/C/D/F/H integrated fire control system, developed by China itself. WP-13B/F research and equipped with a new engine in China, Mirage -2000-5 and currently have a match with the strength of the Air Force recently, I was more mature. Practical fighter; F -11B the introduction of the Su-27 production technology is based on innovation and development of the national production of the F-11. 1128 SU-27CK aircraft based on the general layout and function of maintaining the same performance, WS-10 engines equipped with a China-made engine, made 1474 a fire-control radar-equipped radar PL-12-made and can be mounted missiles and other weapons. Su -27CK compared with the F-11B aircraft weight, flight performance, life and other basic body unchanged, the development of the plane. The country mainly for the F-11, Air Force weapons Readiness raise rates and reduce its dependence on Russia. The aircraft's maiden flight was on December 6, 2003, commissioned in 2005 stereotypes. Shenyang J-601 are also plans - 11B, based on further development of the F-11 multi-improvement. F-trans models are estimated. F-7E aircraft into flying F-Fighter is further improved, mainly to improve fire control systems equipped with a helmet aiming device. fighting at close range, rising to a new level, in 2004 the troops; F-10 August 2004 was officially troops. The aircraft developed after 20 years, quite a vintage performance, is the Air Force's main fighters before 2020. WS-10 aircraft equipped with one engine, and equipped with 1,473-fire-control radar. The aircraft's fire-control system, developed by China itself is advanced integrated fire control system. The aircraft is fulfilled for the further development of the F-10 Fighter / trainer, was conducted in December 2003; West -7A-bombers have been flying troops and equipment to the Soviet Union over -30MKK2 precision strike capability. WS-9; totally domestically produced aircraft has two further improved in the planning, -7B-bombers. -7B Fighter-bombers used simultaneously fulfilled, and to install navigation / bombing systems, weapon delivery of computer attack radar terrain following radar and radar altimeter, will be developed into a new medium-range supersonic strategic bombers; H-6 is now the new production, its operational efficiency and plans to have with the Russian Tu-26 "Backfire" almost. become the backbone of the Air Force's recent strategic offensive forces.


Second generation : research

China is currently developing a generation of combat aircraft F-13 stealth fighters. F-13 in the "Ninth Five-Year Plan" period establishment began to develop. State upfront investment of 80 billion, 611 are from organizations in manufacturing, which is following the F-10, Another major national organizations to develop special projects. Stealth aircraft use a variety of materials and technology, it head-direction radar cross-sectional area (RCS) reduced to 0.5 m 2. enemy radar detection range it will be halved. Electromagnetic Theory and Applications Institute of the Chinese Academy of Sciences by researchers in the research group of inlet and the F-13 jet engine compressor blade on the surface layer of ferromagnetic radar absorbing materials. One thickness of the coating material for 1.4MM 0.7MM and inlet; The coating material for a 0.5MM ago level low pressure compressor blade. Such measures could make the F-13 inlet 10-15DB; to reduce the reflection of radar stealth, F-13 cockpit has built an improved research staff has developed a plasma deposition processes. listed plasma deposition of metal and polymer materials dissection. Shielding throw in the cockpit, while having no impact on the sunlight to enter. The F-13 is a power device developed by WS-10A 624 engine maximum thrust of 14,000 kilograms, pushing quality over nearly 9 to 7 on the Richter Scale Series engine and vector axisymmetric nozzle. The core components of the engine test was completed in 2004. F-13 prototype was started in 2004 to fly into the general assembly, expected in 2010 2008- service. It will use more advanced integrated avionics system, the fire-control radar for 1475 Active Phased Array Radar. is a fourth-generation fighters with the characteristics of the fourth-generation medium prospective fighters. Standards before it is the fourth-generation fighter, the F-22 and F-35 deal with the threat of weapons.

Third generation : research

20 since the 1990s, world military hegemony, and a fourth generation of fighter bombers, F-22, F-35, B-2 and so on. Fourth-generation fighter which has the following features : ① supersonic flight, the maximum speed is greater than (or equal to) 1.8M. Second, the supersonic cruise missile can fly to access dial-up account : the thread can not be more than high-speed dash ③, ④ post-stall maneuver. ⑤ low altitude required for a long time, ⑥ height required for a long time, ⑦ combat radius, ⑧ vertical short take-off and landing, ⑨ Stealth, which features A fourth-generation fighters have what is impossible, with the increasing cost of the planes. This requires a different tactical options need to adopt some new techniques, different aircraft for different tactical and technical requirements. use this equipment to identify the best benefit-cost ratio system. For example, with research costs, a fourth-generation fighters heavy use of costly, it is impossible to popular equipment, bound to go along with the development of fourth-generation fighter, a medium relatively low-grade, high-end components to match the equipment system. This is now the United States and Russia and other large equipment used by Air Force system. In China, due to the level of economic development is still limited, as the United States did not produce large amounts of funds. comprehensive fourth generation of heavy-duty and medium-fighters and equipment, but our air defense operations, but it also needs a lot of fighter planes. This makes our country unique to the Air Force and the aviation industry of China's national and military equipment of the proposed system with Chinese characteristics : Air Force fighters in the sub-systems that mix of high, low-grade match; ground attack aircraft by far, nearly sub-attack planes. fighter-bombers and strategic bombers; 3 match. In the development of fourth-generation fighters, according to my Air Force aviation industry equipment system through long-term research, upcoming plans, R & D focus on the following aircraft : F-14 heavy fighters, the F-15 fighter medium. F-16 supersonic medium vertical / short take-off and landing fighter, the F-17 multi-purpose fighter light. J-8 fighter-bombers, strategic bombers and bombers -9, -7 strong stealth fighter planes.

1
"Profession : heavy fourth-generation F-14 fighter aircraft : F-14, developed by 601. 624 YWH-30-27 developed by the two sets of core components derived WS-17 development of the high-thrust engines. pushed more than 10 quality, the biggest engine thrust 17,500 kg, uses a symmetric-axis thrust-vectoring nozzle, YF-23 shape a bit like aircraft, stealth aircraft better performance RCS 0.15 m 2. Asia is excellent, supersonic aerodynamic performance, can not be prolonged for Afterburner good subsonic and supersonic cruise. supersonic mobile; With strong far, close air combat capability. can bring advanced after launching attacks against various targets in the long-range air-to-air missiles which, Anti-jamming up big off-axis firing angle of the Short Range missiles, high power-to-ground precision guided weapons; High-performance integrated avionics system, the integration of information inside the aircraft and the aircraft. in the most concise form to the pilot states pose information, and give full play to the role of the pilot and flight intelligent support.

2 Ver.2 : F-15 F-15s from the medium : 601 fourth-generation fighters as R & D, 624 YWH-20-13 developed by the two sets of core aircraft engine derived from the medium WS-15 high thrust-weight ratio. hold in esteem than 10 single thrust of 9500 kg.

3 The fourth generation supersonic medium-3 : F-16 : a vertical short take-off and landing F-16 fighter, developed by 4611. Jacques -141 aircraft developed from the Russian aircraft. Using stealth aircraft design with transonic, supersonic cruise capability. OTH can simultaneously attack multiple targets, the enforceability of the land, sea, and ground to a variety of tasks. WS-17 cruise the main engine of a plane, the aircraft will be primarily naval aviation equipment. equipment for the Navy's Amphibious Assault Ship Program or stationed Nansha and Xisha Islands airport, I support Navy and Marine operations.

"4> fourth-generation multi-purpose fighter aircraft : the F-17 light aircraft equipped with a two WS-14 light engines. I was empty, the Navy will substantially decrease fourth-generation fighter aircraft equipment.

< 5 > strong : strong -7 -7 stealth attack aircraft developed by China's imminent establishment close support attack plane. adopt stealth design 624 equipment developed by one of the core components derived YWH-30-27 development Xiaohan Road WS-18 than augmented turbofan engine. Maximum Thrust 10000-11000 kg, with a supersonic cruise capability. The aircraft will gradually replace our strong -5.

"6> : J-J-8-8 fighter-bomber is to develop a new generation of fighter-bomber. It made reference to the development of the Russian Su-34, J-11 is based on our own innovation and development. However, the aircraft and Su-34 different is the use of stealth design. The plane to a maximum range of 7,000 km. The 624 engine is being developed by the two core components derived YWH-25-17 development and the promotion of greater than 9 level WS engine thrust. single biggest thrust 14000 kg payload of 10 tons or more.

No. 7 H-9 : H-9 in 95 strategic bombers, the establishment began to research. In the case without aerial refueling aircraft, range of over 8,000 km. air refueling range of more than 12,000 km. 2M aircraft cruising speed, penetration rate will reach more than 4M, payload of 20 tons-40 tons. There stealth aircraft better performance. 624 engine is being developed by the four core components derived YWH-30-27 development of 36,000 pushed more than 10 engines WS-19 level, the biggest thrust of 18,700 kg.


F-14, F-15, F-16, F-17, strong -7, -8-bombers. H-9 will be completed in 2020 to develop and equip our troops, the air equipment has reached the world's advanced level.

China launches new stealth fighter project

By Yihong Chang, JDW Correspondent, Zhuhai

The Shenyang Aircraft Company has been selected to head research and development of a new heavyweight fighter for China's People's Liberation Army Air Force (PLAAF), according to a senior source at the China Aviation Industry Corp I (AVIC I).


China's Shenyang Aircraft Company has overseen the development of several J-X heavyweight fighter concepts. (Source: via Y Chang)

Development of the engines and weapon subsystems for the fourth-generation fighter has been underway for some time, according to the source, who revealed that a number of design concepts have already been created. Wind-tunnel tests of these are about to start. Images of the concepts show a twin-engine aircraft sharing some design traits with Lockheed Martin's stealthy F/A-22 multirole fighter, now undergoing tests with the US Air Force, such as the internal carriage of its weapon systems. The Chinese designs retain a more conventional wing, however, and use a single vertical tail fin.

AVIC I officials told JDW that the new aircraft - tentatively dubbed the J-X and possibly to receive the service designation J-13A - could use the WS10A turbofan engine designed by the Shenyang Liming Motor Company during its development and trials process.

In development for more than a decade, the WS10-series powerplant completed air trials earlier this year with an Su-27SK (NATO reporting name: 'Flanker-B') fighter. The WS10A is scheduled for introduction with the PLAAF's new J-10A fighter, which has yet to be formally unveiled.

Continuing research into advanced control techniques is expected to in time allow the air force to field WS10A-powered J-10A and J-X fighters equipped with thrust-vectoring nozzles offering improved aircraft manoeuvrability.

While AVIC I sources will not speculate when the new fighter might make its first test flight, a debut around the end of the decade could be expected if the project matches the development process for China's J-10A and J-8D projects.

Wednesday, September 2, 2009

China Puts Up a Fighter

China Puts Up a Fighter
Beijing's fifth-generation military challenge to the U.S


ZHUKOVSKY, Russia—With few exceptions, Beijing rarely says much of substance about its ongoing military build-up or its strategic thinking. But the overriding message from the recent Moscow Airshow and other airshows, plus occasional interviews with Chinese and Russian engineers, is that Beijing is not conceding next-generation air superiority to anyone, least of all the United States.

Exhibit A is Beijing's long-running effort to build a fifth-generation fighter plane equivalent to the U.S. F-22 and F-35. Such planes use extensive stealth and advanced radar and can usually "supercruise," or fly supersonically for extended periods without using fuel-guzzling afterburners. In what may be the only public reference to the program by a Chinese official, the Commander of the People's Liberation Army Navy mentioned their requirement for a fighter capable of "supersonic cruise" during 60th anniversary celebrations in April. Today this can only be achieved by the U.S. F-22A Raptor, the world's only operational fifth-generation fighter.

To be sure, China faces many technical obstacles. Development of advanced engines capable of 15-ton thrust levels is a particularly serious bottleneck. But China's fifth-generation efforts date back to the early 1990s and will start with two heavy fighters from China's two main fighter companies. A Chinese source told me in early 2005 that the Chengdu Aircraft Corporation, famous for developing the fourth-generation J-10 fighter, was considering the development of a medium-weight fifth-generation plane comparable to the F-35. This could mean that Chengdu's fighter will be built in vertical take-off and aircraft carrier versions. In 2006, the competing Shenyang Aircraft Corporation revealed a concept for a single-engine forward-swept-wing fighter that would be highly maneuverable and potentially stealthy. It seems the PLA envisions two levels to its program: a heavy fighter for maintaining air superiority, and a medium-weight plane that's cheaper and more versatile.

Even before China's fifth-generation fighter flies, advances in electronics and engines will enable new "four-plus" generation fighters, like the J-10B that recently began flight testing. These fighters and eventual fifth-generation fighters will pose a more effective challenge to current and future U.S. air forces, and will make obsolete the fourth-generation fighter fleets of Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. The U.S. Navy currently has no program for a fifth-generation fighter as good as the F-22, but instead intends to rely on the slower F-35C, which is optimized for attack missions.

The PLA aims to use these programs as a vehicle for beefing up its research and development capacity to reduce its reliance on Russian and other foreign technologies. A Ukrainian source here disclosed that his company is in discussions with Chengdu-associated institutes on the development of what could become a second fifth-generation engine program for China. But an official with the Sukhoi fighter company, which has sold many planes to China, stated pointedly that they are not helping China with its fifth-generation program. They're cooperating with India instead on New Delhi's own fifth-generation fighter development. Russia's main reason appears to be business; China has not signed a treaty protecting intellectual property. China could be motivated by technological nationalism.

China's moves to go it alone could have several consequences. Beijing's current reliance on Russian technologies effectively gives Moscow a veto over China's sales of its planes to third parties. As Beijing gains expertise designing its own indigenous engines, it will free itself from this constraint, allowing greater latitude to sell advanced fighters for its own aims. The new J-10B may already be slated for Pakistan, advancing the arms race on the Indian subcontinent.

There are worrying signs that the U.S. either does not fully appreciate the consequences of Chinese advanced fourth-generation and fifth-generation fighters entering the market, or is willfully ignoring them. In July, Defense Secretary Robert Gates publicly predicted that by 2020 "nearly 1,100 [combat aircraft in the U.S. Air Force] will be the most advanced fifth-generation F-35s and F-22s. China, by contrast, is projected to have no fifth-generation aircraft by 2020. And by 2025, the gap only widens." Armed with this apparent assessment by the U.S. intelligence community, by the end of July the Obama administration had overruled congressional objections and stopped production of the F-22A at 187 by 2012.

This is a big gamble, and seems like a bad bet in light of China's apparent determination to push forward with its own fifth-generation program. If this bet does go south, it could cost America future air superiority in the Pacific. It could deny a key U.S. ally, Japan, a significant non-nuclear means for deterring Chinese aggression. It could also be bad for the U.S. companies like Lockheed-Martin and Boeing commercially. Washington's inability to offer a fifth-generation "champion" fighter could push South Korea and Japan to turn to French technologies to develop their own fifth-generation programs.

Mr. Gates and the U.S. intelligence community could prove to be correct, but they have so far offered little public data to explain the prediction that has served to justify such a potentially fateful decision. Meanwhile, despite the PLA's lack of meaningful transparency Beijing's own goals are crystal clear. It would be far smarter for the U.S. to prepare for the likelihood that Beijing will develop and build far more than 187 fifth-generation air-superiority fighters.