Tuesday, December 30, 2008

Companies of a certain type of aircraft landing gear to achieve the first aircraft delivery



J-13 J-13 (J-15?) is the first generation of Chinese shipborne fighter aircraft being developed by both 601 Institute and SAC for PLAN's first aircraft carrier. It was speculated originally that the aircraft would be based on J-11B (as J-11BJ, see above). However recent evidence suggested that J-13 is very likely to be a new semi-stealth design. The twin-engine heavy fighter design might have benefited from a similar but more advanced stealth design developed between 1990 and 2000 by SAC/601 Institute to compete for the J-14 project (see below). It might also have benefited from the development of J-11B, such as similar radar and electronic systems as well as the improved WS-10A turbofan engine. Some key shipborne aircraft technologies such as landing/navigational systems are believed to be based on Russian Su-33 and were bought from Russia and Ukraine. Overall J-13 is believed to be in the same class of American F/A-18E. Some parts of J-13 such as landing gear have already been manufactured. The first prototype is projected to fly within 2-4 years.

12 月18日,某型飞机起落架交付仪式在中航起燎原分公司隆重举行,比预期时间提前十八天。集团公司、总装、×装等有关方面领导出席交付仪式。当鲜红的幕布徐 徐揭开,厂房里顿时响起了热烈的掌声,礼花绽放,鞭炮齐鸣。这标志着公司某型飞机起落架研制工作取得突破性进展,起落架研制水平迈上新台阶。
中航工业集团和军方在贺信中说,欣悉你们克服地震灾害带来的不利影响,顽强拼搏,攻克了新材料加工种种技术难关,在兄弟单位的全力配合下,实 现了某型飞机起落架的提前交付,这是该型机研制中的一件大事,谨向你们致以衷心祝贺。某型机是部队和集团领导首要关心的项目,你们承担的起落架研制任务是 该型机研制的一个关键所在,首架份起落架的交付为该项目奠定了坚实的基础。希望你们认真总结前期经验,再接再厉,团结协作,再创佳绩,确保后续研制按时优 质交付。
今年2月初研制工作全面启动以来,公司全体干部职工在300多个日日夜夜里,克服了难以想象的困难,日夜兼程攻克各种研制难关。特别是 5.12特大地震给汉中生产基地处于攻坚阶段的研制带来了极大影响,但广大干部职工并没有被困难吓倒,积极开展生产自救,迅速组织恢复生活生产设施。为把 地震对研制的影响降到最低,在酷暑季节,公司实行关键岗位三班倒生产,全体职工7天工作制,全力赶抢研制进度。通过广大干部职工的奋力拼搏,凝聚着各参研 单位、参研人员智慧和心血的某型飞机起落架终于实现首架交付。
“成绩来之不易,新型起落架研制难度大,该厂干部职工在研制困难多、经费紧张的情况下,顶着巨大的压力胜利完成了任务,打了一个漂亮仗”。 “埋头苦干是取得成果的保障,中航起公司‘既然承诺了,就要干好它’的精神要发扬”。“中航起人兑现了当初的承诺,起落架研制不容易,中航起人创造了一个 奇迹,过去你们发扬敢于拼搏的精神创造了一个个奇迹,今天你们又开创了一个新局面,希望公司再接再厉,乘胜前进”……。这是各方参会领导对公司最大的褒扬 和鞭策。

china threat aircraft carriers

China warships on anti-pirate mission

Saturday, December 20, 2008

china invasion plans on Vietnam ?????

Translation: Chinese » English

Vietnam and Southeast Asia since ancient times been China's traditional sphere of influence. China and Vietnam in the history of most of the time is a friendly neighbor. However, since the 1970s, due to China's national strength is weak and gradually lost control over the region. Vietnam has Southeast Asia to take this opportunity to occupy our country and even eating into the territory to such an extent that the two countries thoroughly enemies, went to war. China is now Vietnam's territorial security of the most important threat to impede the re-emergence of China's biggest obstacle. On the other hand, Vietnam is also the entire South-East Asia Center for Strategic and hub. To regain control of South-East Asia is necessary to conquer Vietnam. Vietnam to conquer is the first step in the expansion of south China and most important step.

Vietnam is Southeast Asia's strongest military power, also has a wealth of experience in war and in particular the military power of combat experience, so, no matter from which side, Vietnam is a hard nut to crack. In accordance with Chairman Mao's words, we have strategically contempt for opponents, but in the tactical importance to opponents. Therefore, the Vietnamese military operations must have a thorough scientific and operational plans.

Vietnam's terrain is extremely special, put it in simple language is like the analogy of the plate lying in the Indo-China at the eastern end of a strange Hydrus, and what a narrow strip of North and South, between North and South length of 1600 km, and things narrowest point is only 50 km . Vietnam low-lying West High East, for three-quarters of the territory of the mountain and plateau. North Vietnam by cutting deep into the mountains parallel, 1500-300 meters above sea level. Platform and is in the southern highlands, 500-1500 meters above sea level. Many mountain streams, river bed between the larger, fast-flowing, flooding rivers during the rainy season, tropical jungle covering the entire territory of the area by 40%. Therefore, most of Vietnam's regional operations are not suitable for large-scale mechanization. According to the U.S. in the Vietnam War and the failure of the lessons we have more to the war in self-defense to counter the successful experience of the use of mountain troops and helicopter gunships carried out is a mountainous jungle warfare and the best way to fight. As long as we can break through in Vietnam's northern mountainous area of defense, once the Red River Plain, armored troops will be able to play a great power skelter. However, from time to fight back in self-defense in times of war veteran offensive line into the armored forces, has proved to be unsuccessful. Well, the other can only open up a new battlefield. Quickly and effectively focus on the large-scale armored forces, enemy of the Center for the implementation of the hinterland of the devastating surprise is the key to the ground.

How to Vietnam this uniform Hydra depends largely on how quickly it cut off the snake-heads. There is a saying in China, the snake fight Qicun, Qicun the location of the snake is the Gate of Life. We note that in coastal areas in central Vietnam's Thanh Hoa told a local, here are just plain of the southern tip of the Red River, another Vietnam Song Ma river to the sea. Thanh Hoa from the south, things suddenly narrowed terrain, which form a snake-like neck of the terrain, the whole Vietnam is separated into two different parts of North and South. Vietnam to connect the two ends of the main north-south railway and highway arteries by Thanh Hoa to the south only to a narrow channel out of an extension of its geographical location and our strategic Pore Jinzhou very similar. Thanh Hoa is therefore worthy of the name of the control of the northern part of Vietnam's throat snakeheads. This is equivalent to the throat strangled strangled the snakes Qicun.

At the same time, low-lying area of Thanh Hoa is open flat alluvial plain type, is ideal for large-scale amphibious landing. If the amphibious landing approach can be a large number of armored troops into battle quickly. In this way, a tank landing will be able to avoid the mountains and plains to make full use of the terrain to the advantage of the rapid advance Hanoi. In Thanh Hoa landing operations smoothly, the entire battlefield situation will be fundamental change. Vietnam army so that the speedy resolution of the issue possible. That being the case, such a good amphibious landing conditions, the United States then why not use it. This is mainly because China during the Vietnam War when the United States that a warning: "The ban on crossing the 17 degrees north latitude line" that the United States during the Korean War has been lingering fear of failure. Therefore, China's warning played a role in deterrence, until the end of the war, the United States dare not deviate from them, and Thanh Hoa in the area 20 degrees north latitude line in the vicinity. United States 17 times dared not cross the line in Thanh Hoa is clear that there will be no landing of any significance.

Comprehensive range of the above considerations, are following the development of the more offensive operations plan:

First, the deployment of troops. Vietnam decided to adopt a three-way battle spot, encircled the heart of the tactics and the implementation of the South after the North's first strategic policy. Accordingly, the intention to attack troops into the north, east and south of the three battle groups.

Yunnan, to the 14th army group to group to attack the North as the main task at the same time, in order to adapt to the war in the early needs of mountain operations, the 13th army deployed an army mountain brigades and one aviation brigade transport to the strengthening of the 14th Group Army. Yunnan direction of the total strength of 60,000 people.

Guangxi, to the 42nd Army group hosted the Group of offensive tasks of the 41st Armored Brigade and a group of a mission to strengthen the army to the army 42. Air Force in the second division in charge of the Eastern Group of air support. Guangxi direction of the total strength of 100,000 people.

Southern Group of land and sea landing direction to the Marine Corps and two brigades of the army as the first group of the main tasks of the attack, Army 54 127 army mechanized division as a second echelon, as Hanoi's offensive leader of the main armored assault. At the same time, the South China Sea Fleet Naval Air Force and the main force responsible for the theater of the landing force of delivery and air cover support. Air Force is responsible for the entire ninth division in central Vietnam's air space and fire suppression in depth. South of the Group's total strength of 150,000, of whom 100,000 people visit the troops.

Jinan Military Region, the 24th Group Army and the 15th Airborne Army of the total reserve.

At this point, our army's total strength of the war 520,000 people (excluding the Strategic Air Force and Second Artillery), 310,000 front-line combat units. Is expected to main battle tanks into 1200, 3000 armored combat vehicles, combat aircraft of various types 3200.

Second, the implementation of operations. Time is expected to battle for 31 days.

(A), the strategy to combat stage.

On the first day the war started, I started the second enemy artillery throughout 300 important political and military targets in the first round of missile attacks. To the territory of the enemy fired 500 short-range tactical missiles and 100 medium-range tactical missiles, the navy fired to the enemy's 200 land-based sea-based cruise missiles and 100 cruise missiles. Electromagnetic forces the enemy command centers, communications stations and Leida Ji, the implementation of strong electromagnetic interference. Strategic bombers focused on the enemy territory of large-scale power plants and industrial infrastructure of strategic bombing.

The next day, air force and naval air force carried out 1,000 sorties against the enemy aircraft to carry out important military targets in the second round of precision strike, the first day of missile attacks and the effect of evaluation. The second enemy artillery continued to launch 300 tactical missiles.

On the third day, the air force and naval air force carried out 1,500 sorties against the enemy aircraft to carry out important military targets in the air raid on a larger scale. And to eliminate the remaining Vietnamese naval and air forces. Navy continued to launch 100 cruise missiles, land-based, fixed-point destroyed.

(C), stage combat tactics.

On the fourth day, the air force and naval air force planes carried out 1,000 sorties against the enemy of the main targets in the third round of military strike at the same time, the army attacked the group to use long-range rockets and the enemy face-to-face large-caliber artillery fire covered an important objective of the implementation of a surprise attack. In the South China Sea Fleet of the completion of all the waters of the Beibu Gulf in the South China Sea and the southern tip of the route blockade. In the East China Sea Fleet around the periphery of the implementation of long-range warning.

On the fifth day, the air force and naval air force planes carried out 500 sorties on the direction of the main assault on the enemy's important to focus on military targets in the precision bombing. Further destruction of the enemy's ability to fight back and force on the ground. Army attack helicopters on the ground with artillery fire against the enemy targets deep extension of the raid. At the same time, the location of the attack force into the attack, landing the Group of 10 large landing ship transport, and 100 medium-sized transport landing man-of-war has finished loading from the naval port of departure. Air Force and Navy attack submarines to provide the entire air space and sea-wide under the escort of landing.

(D), the ground combat phase.

Sixth day of the early morning of the attacks on troops in the final hour to prepare fire, and then from the north, east, south, the direction of the three fast forward to the attacks on the territory of Vietnam. North East Group and the Group of the offensive line is still in use 79 years of Vietnam war-time use of self-defense line, landing the first Group of South echelon of the two Marine Corps brigade, and Jing Jia Le from the field to open up areas of the two sides move closer to the landing field and .

Seventh, eighth beachheads in the consolidation of the landing force, the first group landed one after another to expand the main landing field. And a mission to the south, troops rushed forward based on favorable terrain blocking rush to the rescue of the north Vietnamese.

Di Jiuri, Di Shiri, the first main group captured in the northern Thanh Hoa cut off the main newspaper with the forces of the South, Hanoi's strategy for the completion of the siege. At the same time, troops captured a division altar justice and the topography and the coastline to the south rely on defense, blocking the Beiyuan Vietnamese troops.

Dishiyiri, North and East of the Group of the Group were to attack troops break through Yen Bai and Lang Son. Hanoi attack on the formation of the force. 127 54th Army Group Army mechanized division after landing.

Dishierri, 127 Dishisanri division to the Hanoi high-speed into the occupation and Ninh Binh. In this way, I North, East, South, the three battle groups raids were intended to promote the area, completed the siege of Hanoi.

Dishisiri, the fifteenth, the same troops on standby a rest, the consolidation of the region has been occupied. I long-range artillery and air force started to Hanoi for the former general offensive firepower to combat ready. At the same time, one after another into the 24th Group Army of Vietnam battlefield.

Dishiliuri, the Vietnamese capital of Hanoi's mounted. Is expected to be completed three days of the occupation of Hanoi.

Dishijiuri, Diershiri the troops two days rest.

第二十一日, I put a new group of the 24th and the beginning of the first main group of South Vietnam's battle.

On the 31st to occupy the whole territory of Vietnam.

The plan of operations for a few:

First, why only 5 days of air strikes on ground troops into. 1991 Gulf War, the United States has a large number of precision-guided weapons and the absolute air and sea superiority, still had a month-long preparations for air strikes before entering the ground. We have fast access to major combat on the ground because of Vietnam and Iraq are quite different. First of all, Vietnam geography of the complexity of the decision to air only the best in the beginning stages of the war to the enemy of all of a sudden the use of the enormous destruction, then the enemy will adjust very quickly to deploy the use of multi-Vietnam mountain, jungle and more the characteristics of effective concealment. Vietnam and humidity throughout the year because of a large, and fog shrouded Yunqi, making our air there were considerable difficulties in the investigation. Therefore, if we do not rely on the accurate guidance of the ground forces, the continued air strikes have not been very effective. Secondly, Vietnam is no large-scale armored forces, mainly light infantry and mountain-based forces, which are better at making Vietnamese scattered and hidden, so that can only rely on the army to implement targeted. The United States has been a little more like a tiger in Vietnam. As long as we have more of a war, the United States will definitely try to disrupt that only ground forces into quick, Vietnam to become a real battlefield, the formation of scrimmage situation, in order to completely stop the United States to intervene.

Second, the operational plan to implement three-way spot, encircled the heart of the tactics, including amphibious landing in the South Group is the main direction of our military offensive and focus. Therefore, the most powerful and best armored forces should be focused on the use of direction. East Group, a supplement to the surprise attack on the direction of North Road to contain the strategic direction for the group.

Third, because of the more mountainous and jungle warfare is mainly a conventional war, the helicopter's vertical crack down on ultra-horizon will play a very significant role. At present, our army's air forces grossly inadequate. In order to meet the future requirements of become operational, the group should strengthen the building of the army forces, army aviation regiment in the original group on the basis of expansion for the Army Aviation Brigade. Substantial increase in three-dimensional offensive and defensive capabilities and ability to dispatch the battlefield.


Monday, December 8, 2008

Ukraine Trains Naval Aviators

December 8, 2008: The Ukraine wants to become the international capital of carrier aviation training. Decades ago, the Soviet Union built its aircraft carrier pilot training facilities at Nitka, outside Odessa, a city that is, since the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, in the independent country of Ukraine. Ukraine is now trying to attract China and India as customers for these facilities. China has signed up, and is buying aircraft carrier equipment made in Ukraine. China is expanding its own carrier aviation training center, and is buying consulting and technical services from Ukraine to assist in that project. One interesting item to come out of the visits by Chinese naval aviation personnel to Ukraine, is that the Varyag, a former Soviet carrier that China bought from Russia six years ago, is being restored for use as a training carrier. This explains the spotty restoration work that has been done on the Varyag. However, the Chinese indicated that the Varyag could still be turned into an operational combat carrier, either before or after it enters service as a training ship.

The Nitka base was used by the Soviets to train MiG-29K and Su-33 pilots for service on their carriers. India is buying MiG-29Ks for their carriers, and China is apparently building, with Ukrainian help, a carrier version of the Su-30 (which is what the Su-33 was).

Friday, December 5, 2008


Translation: Chinese » English

Reporter: We know that 6-7 is a straight -15-ton medium-sized helicopter, I would like to ask the General Yang, the tonnage of the helicopters are mainly used for what?

General Yang: China and Western countries such as France, Germany, Britain and the United States helicopters from the general scope of the tonnage of 1.5 tons to 15 tons, the Russian helicopter to a greater range of tonnage, there are 20 tons 30 tons. For economic reasons, we Europe and the United States and the major development is 1.5-15 tons of helicopters. 6-ton helicopter belonging to medium-sized helicopter, which is characterized by high universality, the use of a wide range. -15 Straight on, it's very appropriate number of passengers, the economy is good, medium, can be used for transportation, hanging outside, the inspection of electricity, tourism, aerial photography, forest fire prevention and inspection, search and rescue, As well as Sichuan earthquake emergency rescue of the wounded this regard. France and China previously did not have the tonnage helicopters, the reason why we developed the tonnage has helicopter is to take into account a wide range of uses it. Eurocopter helicopters for the first time in the United States show up on this model, received 111 orders, and then one after another to obtain a dozen or so orders, the Chinese side that we currently have ten aircraft orders intention.

Reporter: From the look and cockpit configuration, direct -15 really is a more level plane.

Yang total: right, straight on the level of -15 was, first of all, it is reflected in the latest in accordance with the airworthiness standards development, which meet the latest safety standards for airworthiness, followed by the economy from the point of view, its fuel consumption, Maintenance and customer support training, Helicopter currently has a representative of the most advanced level.

Reporter: -15 straight and the development of our country before the helicopter straight -9 such as the largest difference in wherever? What are the characteristics of performance?

Yang total: Direct -9 is at the end of the 1970s produced a helicopter, even though it is also a master of civil aircraft, but when the design requirements for airworthiness standards of the last century, from the security aspect is certainly not in accordance with The latest airworthiness standards to create the -15 straight. The civil aircraft is important is durable and easy to use, in this regard, we direct -15 represents the latest design standards.

Reporter: What do you think of our helicopters is how the level of R & D? -15 Straight and the helicopter before it compared to a big step forward?

General Yang: Now we have completely made of helicopters, such as direct -9 and -11 straight, but durable and easy to use foreign products than there are gaps, foreign helicopters could expect to live to 20,000 hours, made only 5 of the -6000 Hours, and we are also after-sales service and the international advanced level there are gaps, after all, widespread use of helicopter developed a number of years.

But the years of China's helicopter industry in the digestion and absorption of foreign technology has made great progress in independent innovation is the next step in this direction we have gone through a period of distance, but in comparison the core technologies such as power and transmission with advanced international There is still gap between the levels. In a number of factors under the influence of the domestic market or the helicopter was not so good, it is also understandable, as car buying, customers not only to consider the performance, and security and economy, as well as after-sales service. But as the latest products, -15 straight in the economy than before, and so a great improvement, and complete the world, our design requirements and design goals are entirely in accordance with the needs of users to develop, we believe that it's definitely better than the market prospects Before the helicopter made better.

Reporter: -15 straight after we also develop more large-scale helicopter?

Yang total: there is such a plan, straight after -15 in the development of more than 10-ton helicopter.

Reporter: If I remember correctly, this is also a straight 8 tonnage?

Yes, but straight 8 of the last century is the era of 5,60 technology, after all the old models. At present we are carrying out demonstration projects, it may have been approved in 2012 will be.

Reporter: -26 meters similar to the kind of super-heavy helicopters, we have a development plan? Large helicopters and small and medium-sized helicopters have research and development is no different?

General Yang: We have this idea, in fact, the design of ultra-small and medium-sized helicopters and heavy-duty helicopter little difference, the main difference is reflected in the manufacturing stage.

Reporter: This year's Wenchuan earthquake, we can see that China's helicopter market, the gap is still very great through this time, the state of the helicopter's position more seriously, does this mean that China's helicopter industry will enter a stage of rapid development?

General Yang: In the past, we use the helicopter is not very well, as a result of this earthquake we know that the helicopter aircraft characteristics and uses. And fixed-wing aircraft, helicopters flying more flexible, it is six degrees of freedom, that is able to fly up and down all around, can hover. Helicopters taking off and landing places for the request are also very low, as long as there is a piece of flat land can take off and land. Sichuan earthquake disaster relief in the process of fully reflect the performance characteristics of the helicopter, so that our national leaders, aware of the helicopter in the national economy and national defense construction.

Many people do not know much about helicopters, Wenchuan after the earthquake and the General Armament Department of the Central Military Commission and President Hu's leadership on the development of the helicopter made important instructions, this is one aspect of the second, through the Wenchuan earthquake, many people recognize Our country's helicopter industry in the development of urgency, not only on economic construction, but also for our national defense construction which is very important. China, as a political and economic power, a lack of helicopters does not work, either on the economy or the building of international status or helicopters are of great significance. Third, we have been investigating the market, along with economic development, per capita gross national product to enhance a country's number of helicopters will be like when the car as a "blowout" growth.

A helicopter is the use of the shortcomings of the relative cost, relatively expensive, this also means that, it is necessary to use a large number of helicopters, the inevitable need for the development of the national economy to a certain stage can be, the United States and Russia and Western countries are doing, from our market research Look at China now has been basically a helicopter to a large area of the use of "blowout" stage. Now the world total of about 10,000 helicopter 3-4, in which the United States have on a country's 10,000, China's military helicopters will be only a few hundred planes, the less civil, less than 200, and the developed countries there are no small Gap, but at the same time the gap is that there is the potential for development, is expected to 10 years after 20 years, China's civilian helicopter owned there will be a big growth, then owned at least two to reach 3000.

Reporter: What do you think the helicopter on the most critical design and technologies, our country's level of?

General Yang: This is what I understand, whether military or civilian helicopters, the most critical security technology and design, the people on the plane for security is the threshold to enter the market, permit. Direct co-operation in Europe and in the past, what we have is safety, security and how to embody the design, is not very clear, but also how to verify the safety of the helicopter is not a lot of experience. Through international cooperation, and we have more. From the key technology, we have been co-operation in Europe and the largest gain, the study is the safety of the design, analysis and verification. Only to meet the security requirements in order to enter the international market, if not satisfied with such a request, the West is not allowed to sell you, of course, Third World countries may be different.

In addition, we also understand that the Western countries of the aircraft's overall design concept of co-operation from the secondary to the quality control and management experience, experience not only for helicopters, fixed-wing aircraft as well as the design of China's aviation industry as a whole, as well as other civilian vehicle Industry has reference. I have to go to college, the teacher said, "Aviation is a level of the industrialized countries of the mirror" and say the reason is because the aviation product research and development involves a large number of areas, such as materials, technology, electronics, machinery and so on, the aviation industry's output value Maybe not, or software and automotive, aviation products, but the skill level is actually a manifestation of the level of industrial countries, only related to every aspect of doing a good job, and aviation products will be competitive in order to progress. On the other hand, if there is progress in aviation products, and also to prove that the overall level of industrial countries have to improve.

If we can one day China developed the A380, Boeing 747 aircraft this big, it's our innovation capability and will be able to rival the United States, we are an industrial power, then our government officials visited the United States, perhaps On the can with the President of the United States with the same confidence to speak up. The aviation industry not only reflect the level of a country's level of industrial development, but also reflect a country's level of organization and management, but also a national system to verify whether or not superior.

Reporter: What do you think the future development of a helicopter in the world what kind of trends?

Yang total: from the general trend, safe, economical, durable and easy to use these requirements as the purpose of the Olympic "higher, faster, stronger", the helicopter will always be the subject of development, can be described as a Endless pursuit of safety, the core of the problem is the airworthiness requirements of the airworthiness requirements of the civilian helicopter was updated quickly, in these conditions, our security will require more and more from the comfort The sexual request, the vibration and noise levels should be reduced, from the economic point of view, the pursuit of more and more low fuel consumption, more easily maintained.

Reporter: As the Wenchuan earthquake, the future of our country's helicopter industry should increase investment, mean that the better performance of the helicopter can be developed faster?

Yang total: simple in the helicopter functions to meet the requirements or be able to do, but durable and easy to use and safe, by the skill level of our country, there are a certain degree of difficulty. For example, the engine, the maximum temperature of more than 1,000 hours of work, there are a minimum 89 degrees, in these conditions to the work of 20,000 hours, but no fault to current industrial base in China is still a relatively big gap. With regard to this, I just point of view: to raise the level of aviation industry, as well as the design and manufacture of technology and other materials should be boosted, and none can be, the state has sufficient input, there is a reasonable system, step by step in order to catch up. Development of the aviation industry and some like football, playing football was not light enough money, if there is no effective mechanism, which is still no way to create success in the game, and the aviation industry as there is no good mechanism, and will not be able to reach people (well-developed Countries) the same level.

Reporter: From here you learn to understand a lot of knowledge on the helicopter, thank you very much for our interview!

General Yang: You're welcome.

Wednesday, December 3, 2008

More goodie from CMSI

Published: 2 Dec 12:58 EST (17:58 GMT)

TAIPEI - The fourth annual conference of the China Maritime Studies Institute (CMSI) will be held Dec. 10–11 at the U.S. Naval War College, Newport, R.I.

CMSI was founded at the Naval War College (NWC) in 2006 for the "purpose of bringing a strong and objective research focus to the issue of Chinese maritime development," a CMSI press release said.
Related Topics

This year's theme is "Evolving Maritime Roles for Chinese Aerospace Power," with panels on aerospace development within China's military modernization program; Chinese intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance; Chinese naval strategies; and air-launched cruise missiles and ballistic missiles.

Moderators include Barney Rubel, NWC; William Martel, Fletcher School, Tufts University; Roy Kamphausen, National Bureau of Asian Research; Bernard Cole, National Defense University; Eric McVadon, a retired U.S. Navy admiral; and Joan Johnson-Freese, NWC.

Previous CMSI conferences have examined Chinese undersea warfare, the connections between Chinese energy and naval strategy, and prospective areas of cooperation between the Chinese and U.S. navies.

This year's conference "evaluates the implications of China's rapid development in the aerospace domain for maritime strategy in the Asia-Pacific region," the news release said. "As part of this effort, the participants, including both leading technical and regional experts, will come together to take a close look at emerging Chinese capabilities - from new satellites to unmanned aerial vehicles to the anti-ship ballistic missile - in considering the aerospace dimension of the Chinese maritime challenge."

This year, 24 papers will be presented, including:

* "Beijing's Aerospace Revolution," by NWC's Andrew Erickson.

* "Chinese EW Aircraft Development and Maritime C4I," by Garth Hekler, Center for Intelligence Research and Analysis.

* "Chinese Helicopter Development: Missions, Roles and Maritime Implications," by Dennis Blasko, CNA Corp.

* "Improvements in China's Airborne ASW Capabilities," by Lyle Goldstein and William Murray (NWC).

* "Anti-Access and China's Air-Launched Anti-Ship Cruise Missiles," by Jing-dong Yuan, Center for Nonproliferation Studies.

* "Chinese Views of Ballistic Missile Defense," by Toshi Yoshihara (NWC).

* "Deterrence and Presence After Beijing's Aerospace Revolution," by Larry Wortzel, a retired U.S. Army officer.


Sunday, November 30, 2008

china Threat

China's Multi-level Air Defense Network
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Tuesday, July 9, 2002

Situation at the End of 2001

In mid-2000, the authors compiled a comprehensive report on China's construction – based on Russian technology – of a multi-level air defense network covering most of China's coast. The essence of this report – which did not attract the attention of U.S. officials – was used in the book "Chinese-Russian Alliance" (compiled in July 2001, to be published by NewsMax in September 2002).

Much has changed in this area – just as in other PLA sectors – in a year, however; this article is an attempt to track the most significant changes.

In 2000-2001, China's People's Liberation Army (PLA) adopted the concept of "offensive and defensive character" for the PLA Air Force (PLAAF) instead of the purely "defensive Air Force" concept used for many years – and began implementing it. This immediately resulted in an acceleration of PLA air defense troop development; most of these troops, and almost all long-range and mid-range air defense missile systems, are subordinate to the PLAAF.

What is even more important, in 2001, both the PLAAF and PLA ground forces (focusing on anti-aircraft artillery and air defense missile (ADM) systems of short range and low altitude) concentrated efforts on the improvement of "san da" (three strikes) capabilities, which meant "strike at the enemy's stealth fighters, cruise missiles and attack helicopters."

Development of PLA air defense troops – more precisely, an air defense multi-level network – became even more accelerated. By the end of 2001, this network effectively covered the coastal, most-developed regions of the country as well as the most important areas in the internal regions, and generally included four major levels:

  • Long-range, high-altitude ADM systems, represented by Russian-made S-300 systems as well as their Chinese-made copies and "derivatives" (given below). They are subordinate to the PLAAF.

  • Mid-range, mid-altitude ADM systems, represented mostly by Russian-made TOR-M1 systems, their Chinese-made derivatives (given below) and "original Chinese" KS-1 systems. They are mostly subordinate to the PLAAF.

  • Short-range, low-altitude systems, represented primarily by Chinese-made copies of the Russian Tunguska missile-artillery system (mostly subordinate to PLA ground forces).


  • Shoulder-launched missiles of Russian and Chinese origin and Chinese-made anti-aircraft artillery (almost entirely concentrated in PLA ground forces).

At this point it would be proper to quote the article "[Major] Developments in China in the Military Area in 2001," published by the Taiwan-based journal Chung-Kung Yen-chiu (PRC [People's Republic of China] Research) in February 2002:

Presently the PLA is equipped with Russian-made S-300 PMU1 long-range ADM systems, [Russian-made] Tor-M1 field ADM [systems], "Feimeng" improved ADMs for ultra-low altitude, KS-1 mid-range ADMs, and QW-1 shoulder-launched ADMs; they form an all-range road-mobile ADM network.

In addition, the PLA acquired the FT-2000 "anti-radar missile system," to be used against the enemy's electronic warfare aircraft of various kinds and AWACS aircraft. The FT-2000, 6.8 m in length, 0.466 m in diameter, 1.3 tons in weight, has a range between 12 km and 100 km and an effective altitude between 3 km and 20 km. Each FT-2000 launcher has four missile-launching vertical tubes on the mobile platform; the FT-2000 system in its outer appearance is extremely close to the Russian S-300 system." (end of excerpt)

They forgot to mention the Chinese-made (reverse engineered) version of Russia's Tunguska system, known as GPZ-954. (Perhaps Feimeng is just the new name for it?)

One can claim that, by the end of 2001, PLA inventories included many hundreds of road-mobile systems of three upper levels and many thousands of weapons for the lowest level.

Situation in 2002

During the first half of 2002, this air defense network continued its quantitative expansion and qualitative upgrading. The following report characterizes this trend:

(Moscow-based Vedomosti newspaper, April 30, 2002, briefly):

In early April (April 4, by some data), Rosoboronexport (the Russian weapons export monopoly) signed a contract to sell two S-300F ship-borne anti-aircraft complexes to China for $200 million. The contract has increased the newly established (by President Putin's order signed in mid-April) Almaz-Antei Corp. parcel of orders by 50 percent. The Altair Enterprise is the company that produces the S-300F complex. Altair and 20 other designers and producers have become parts of Almaz-Antei.

The S-300F complex is a ship-borne replica of the S-300 anti-aircraft complexes. Beijing plans to install the RIF complexes (the name of the export version of the S-300F) on two warships that will be built in China by 2005. An expert from the Russian Air Force said that the S-300F complexes would be installed by China on cruisers designed by Chinese specialists.

In addition to this contract, Almaz-Antei will receive a contract to build the S-300 anti-aircraft complexes for China ($400 million). As a result, the total sum of its contracts will increase to $600 million. (end of report)

This report was confirmed by publications in the Taiwan and Hong Kong media on June 12-13, 2002, which specified that China is building, with Russian assistance, two "super-Sovremenny" destroyers, to be equipped by RIF ADM systems with a range up to 120 km.

Remarkably, the Chinese air defense network could spread to the sea, as a result of RIF installation on naval vessels, for at least 200 km. Earlier, Chinese frigates and destroyers could barely defend themselves from air strikes. However, Chinese destroyers of the new generation will become "outposts" of a coast-based air defense network.

Just as in the case of weapon platforms of other kinds, China's defense industry does it best for "guochanhua" (reverse engineering) of Russian-made ADM systems.

In 2002-2003, China very probably will master – or has already mastered – serial production of

the following systems, whose development has been under way, based on Russian technology, since 1999-2000:

  1. HQ-15. This is the slightly improved version of Russia's long-range high-altitude S-300 PMU1/PMU2 system, with a range up to 120 km and an altitude up to 25 km.

  2. HQ-16 or "super-Tor-M1." This is an all-new ADM system, jointly under development with Russia. It is a mid-range system, effective against low- to medium-altitude (100 m to 20 km) targets. The system's reaction time (time between target detection and missile launch) is 6-8 seconds.

    A single missile system can simultaneously attack eight aircraft or missile targets, with a target-hit probability of 90 percent for any of these targets. The system uses the currently most-advanced vertical launching technology, a phased-array radar, and a composite-guidance warhead. Plans call for the HQ-16 to widely enter PLA service about 2005.

  3. HQ-17. This is a slightly improved version of the Russian Tor-M1 system with a range up to 30 km and altitude up to 15 km. In 2000, the PLA decided to construct, by 2002-2003, between 10 and 12 air defense brigades equipped with hundreds of Tor-M1s and HQ-17s, as well as Chinese original KS-1 and KS-1A ADM systems.

  4. HQ-18. This is a slightly improved version of the Russian S-300 V system. Its major characteristics somewhat surpass those of the HQ-15.

    All the listed systems are road-mobile, just like the original S-300 and Tor-M1.

  5. Feimeng (?) PGZ-95, having its prototype in the Russian Tunguska missile artillery system. It combines one ADM launcher and four 25 mm anti-aircraft guns on a single mobile platform. The system, with an altitude up to 3.5 km and a range up to 6 km, provides high-density fire and reportedly is extremely effective against cruise missiles and fighters of the fourth generation (F-15s, F-16s and F-18s). Serial production was mastered in 1999.

  6. Shoulder-launched anti-aircraft missiles. This includes hundreds of Russian-made Igla missiles and their Chinese derivatives. This is in addition to China's original HQ-1, HQ-2 and HN-5 missiles.

PLA Navy: From 'Green Water' to 'Blue Water' – Part I
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Friday, July 26, 2002

In the first half of 2002, the attention of Western military specialists was drawn to two large-scale contracts concluded by China and Russia and aimed at PLA (People's Liberation Army) Navy modernization:

  1. construction of two Sovremenny-class missile destroyers, for $1.4 billion;

  2. construction of eight upgraded Kilo-class diesel-electric submarines, for $1.6 billion.
Indeed, $3 billion in six months is a huge sum of money. However, this represents only a part of the resources directed at PLA Navy (PLAN) modernization. In any case, the rate of PLAN modernization and construction is not inferior to similar rates of the PLA Air Force and air-defense network (described in recently published articles).

General Structure of the Chinese Shipbuilding Industry

Remarkably, China has a comparatively modern shipbuilding industry; this definitely facilitates PLAN development.

In July 1999, China General Shipbuilding Company was divided, for the purpose of "socialist competition" and accelerated development, into China Shipbuilding Industry Group Corp. (SIGC) and China Shipbuilding Heavy Industry Group Corp. (SHIGC).

SIGC includes several large shipbuilding plants in Shanghai and Guangzhou Shipbuilding Plant, producers of diesel engines and other equipment for vessels. SHIGC includes Dalian Shipbuilding Plant, Dalian New Shipbuilding Plant and Qingdao Shipbuilding Plant, producers of diesel engines for vessels, etc.

During the year 2000, SIGC finished construction of 112 civilian vessels, a total of about 2 million tons deadweight. The volume of production and export increased by about 45 percent from the 1999 level.

Shanghai-based Hudong Shipbuilding Plant, Shanghai-based Jiangnan Shipbuilding Plant and the Guangzhou (capital of Guangdong province) Shipbuilding Plant provided more than 80 percent of the finished deadweight. Several vessels have a deadweight of 80,000-100,000 tons each.

The same year, SHIGC finished construction of 72 civilian vessels, a total of about 1.5 million tons deadweight. Dalian Shipbuilding Plant and Dalian New Shipbuilding Plant provided at least 80 percent of the finished deadweight; this included a 300,000-ton oil tanker for Iran.

By mid-2002, total annual capacity of the two Dalian-based plants approached an estimated 5 million tons deadweight.

Together, the two companies constructed, in 2000, civilian ships of about 3.5 million tons total deadweight. This volume approached 4.5 million tons in 2001 and, by preliminary estimate, could surpass 5 million tons in 2002.

In addition, SIGC and SHIGC annually produce several hundred diesel engines of large capacity and much other equipment for vessels, including sophisticated electronics for control and navigation.


Read Part II of this article.

China's Guochanhua (Reverse Engineering)
Dr. Alexandr Nemets and Dr. Thomas Torda
Thursday, June 13, 2002
Brief History of 'Guochanhua'

The July 1960 break in the Sino-Soviet alliance definitely wasn't a one-time event. The Chinese leaders understood the inevitability of separation by 1958 and did their best to accumulate by all means available - including direct theft - thousands and thousands of sets of the most-advanced Soviet technologies, i.e., weapons know-how, dual-use goods and heavy machinery.

After July 1960, China proclaimed the general course of "basing on our own forces" and concentrating forces on reproducing (reverse engineering, or "guochanhua" in Chinese) the Soviet technology.

China abandoned this autarchy and reinstated ties with the "outer world" after the start of the Great Reform in December 1978. And it appeared that, by the early 1980s, China had completed the reverse engineering of Soviet weapons and heavy machinery.

Generally, it is possible to claim that by about 1984, China acquired the capability to produce - and really master production of, sometimes in single copies - entire sets of Soviet weapons and dual-use products belonging to 1960-61 standards. This in particular included the following (Soviet name first, Chinese name in parentheses):


China to build large military cargo plane

By Andrei Chang
Column: Military Might

Hong Kong, China — Ukraine and China have been engaged in negotiations on the joint design of a large military transport aircraft, according to sources in the Ukrainian Antonov Aircraft Company. The agreement was expected to be inked this month, with the aircraft project to begin soon afterward.

According to a source in the Ukrainian military industry, the basic design concept of the aircraft has already been finalized. The Chinese military transport aircraft will adopt different design concepts and technologies than the An-70 transport aircraft designed by Ukraine and Russia, the source said, and will be powered by four jet engines. Additional technical details of the transport aircraft are to be finalized after the November signing.

In recent years, China has greatly reinforced its strategic military ties with Ukraine in a variety of areas, but this is the two countries’ first collaboration in developing a large aircraft. A source from the Russian aviation industry says that China did not ask for Russian assistance on this project, suggesting that China is shifting its design cooperation away from Russia and toward Ukraine. It also indicates that the new aircraft will be an upgrade of the An-70 rather than a duplication of it.

China expressed keen interest in the An-70 as early as the mid-1990s, when the aircraft was undergoing flight tests in Russia and Ukraine. The aircraft did not get off to an auspicious start, however. The first prototype was tested in Kiev, Ukraine, in December, 1994, but the same plane crashed the following year. The second prototype was damaged in an accident at Omsk, Russia, in 2001.

In 2002, Russia and Ukraine agreed to each take a 50 percent stake in the project, and two more prototypes were manufactured. But by April, 2006, following the Orange Revolution in Ukraine, Russia decided to withdraw from the project.

The aircraft is still under test. The Ukrainian Air Force appears to be the only buyer, having announced its intent to procure five of the An-70s. China’s decision to design its own large military transport aircraft on the foundation of the An-70 technologies is apparently intended to take advantage of the extensive testing the aircraft has already undergone, to save research and development time.

The Anatov source has confirmed the Chinese military transport aircraft will not be fitted with the An-70’s D-27 engine, though it did not disclose what type of engine will be used. The D-27 has an output thrust power of 14,000 horsepower, maximum payload of 47 tons and a flight range of 6,600 kilometers (with a payload of 20 tons).

China has recently imported 240 D-30 KP-2 engines from Russia to use in upgrading its H-6K bombers. It is unlikely that this engine would be used for the military transport plane, however. Russia is already replacing some of the D-30KP-2 engines on its Il-76 airlifter with upgraded D-30 KP-3 or PS-90 engines. The D-30KP-2 does not meet Europe’s latest noise control standards, so the Il-76 aircraft powered by these engines are not allowed to land at European airports.

The dispute over a deal involving China’s import of 38 Russian aircraft – 30 Il-76 transport aircraft and eight Il-78 air-to-air refueling tankers – has not been completely resolved. The Russian side insists that the price of the aircraft agreed in a 2005 deal is no longer viable.

The Il-76 is still the mainstay export platform for Russia, hence Russia has not agreed to transfer its production technology to China, nor have the two sides initiated negotiations on this particular issue, according to a source from the Russian aviation industry. It is because of this that China has turned its attention to Ukraine.

Alexander Mikheev, vice president of Rosoboronexport, Russia’s official defense industry exporter, told the author in a recent interview at a U.K. air show that China still intended to pursue the negotiations on the Il-76 and Il-78 aircraft, and the contract was still in effect.

“We demanded to re-discuss the price of the aircraft,” said Mikheev. He denied that a price had already been agreed upon, however. “We are only demanding that the new price should be in line with the international standard,” he said.

Regarding the timeline of resuming production and assembling the aircraft, he stressed that Russia had already allocated funds to build a new factory at Ulianovsk, and the production of the Il-76 transport aircraft would begin in 2011.

China does not have much experience in the design and production of large transport aircraft, nor are its current projects in this area proceeding smoothly. An example is the Y8F-600 medium-sized military transport plane, for which Antonov agreed in 2002 to provide design assistance.

Even though reports from China claim the plane has already been tested, a source from the Ukrainian aviation industry says its maiden flight has been repeatedly put off and has yet to take place.

According to the original design, the Y8F-600 is powered by four PW150B turboprop engines produced by Pratt & Whitney Canada, with British R408 propellers. Test engines have been delivered to China from Canada, purportedly for use in civilian aircraft.

Yet due to pressure from the United States to restrict exports of military technology to China, it is questionable whether Canada will ultimately allow the export of enough P&W engines to meet China’s production needs. Under this circumstance, China will have no choice but to use Russian or Ukrainian engines in its military transport aircraft.


Thursday, November 27, 2008

China’s carrier plans worry region

By Yu Tsung-chi 余宗基

Friday, Nov 28, 2008, Page 8

In a recent interview with the Financial Times, Chinese Major General Qian Lihua (錢利華), director of the Defense Ministry’s Foreign Affairs Office, said China has every right to build aircraft carriers, without confirming whether it had decided to do so. This enigmatic remark stirred fresh speculation about China’s intentions in developing or acquiring the carriers in light of its economic rise.

China’s intention to build up its own aircraft carriers, viewed as an essential component of building the “blue water” navy able to deploy beyond its coastal waters, has not surprised China watchers. In fact, China has already invested decades of effort in its bid to acquire or develop a monstrous warship.

In 1975 Admiral Liu Huaqing (劉華清), vice chairman of the Central Military Commission, highlighted for first time that China must establish its own aircraft carrier battle group(s) to secure sea lines of communication and protect national sovereignty.

Liu said the goal of developing aircraft carriers was not to start an arms race with the US or the Soviet Union but to meet the requirements for a potential military struggle with Taiwan, settle potential conflicts in the South China Sea, protect its maritime resources, enable China to keep up with regional powers such as India and Japan, give the Chinese navy a decisive edge in future warfare, and participate in the world peacekeeping.

China has purchased four decommissioned carriers: the Melbourne (1985), the Varyag (1998), the Minsk (1998) and the Kiev (2000) from Australia, Ukraine and Russia respectively. Only the Varyag, now docked in Dalien, seems to be a candidate for refurbishment to operational status after photos seen in December 2005 appeared to show activity on the deck to apply new coatings consistent with aircraft operations.

Some specialists, however, believe that these four carriers — which are different in terms of function, designation and structure — must have been used to expedite China’s research and development capabilities in developing its own model.

There have been many reports regarding China’s aircraft carrier intentions. In October 2006, the Russian newspaper Kommersant reported that Russia had signed a US$2.5 billion arms sale contract with China to deliver 48 SU-33 fighters, which the Sukhoi Aviation Bureau designed specifically for carrier operations.

In March last year, a Beijing-backed Hong-Kong newspaper reported that China could have its first aircraft carrier by 2010. Rick Fisher, vice president of the International Assessment and Strategy Center and an expert on the Chinese military, concurred with that report. He believes that “before the end of this decade, we will see preparations for China to build its first indigenous aircraft carrier.”

Jane’s Defence Weekly reported last month that the People’s Liberation Army was training the first batch of 50 cadets to become naval pilots capable of operating aircraft from the mock-up carrier at the Dalian Naval Academy.

All this is evidence that China has a more ambitious and impending timetable than many might think. An aircraft carrier is perceived as a potent symbol of national power, and China is expected to finish building its first aircraft carrier within two to five years.

Such a scenario is cause for concern in East Asia, especially among countries that claim sovereignty over the Spratly Islands, and will definitely have a great impact on other countries in the region — India, Japan, South Korea, Russia and of course, Taiwan — as well as the US.

The case of Taiwan is especially noticeable because if the Varyag can be transformed into China’s first aircraft carrier battle group, it would have a great impact on Taiwan’s defensive operation.

By then, Taiwan’s operational forces would be kept at bay because China’s aircraft carrier(s) could sail off Taiwan’s east coast, beyond the radius of action of fighter jets. This could not only deter foreign forces coming to Taiwan’s aid, but also allow China to attack Taiwan from both sides.

Subsequently, Taiwan’s “forces reservation” at a preliminary stage in east Taiwan, where it reportedly can protect more than half of its sophisticated fighter aircraft, would also be challenged by China’s new capabilities.

Although submarines are believed is the best deterrent to aircraft carriers, Taiwan only has four submarines — two World War II-era subs from the Soviet Union and two Dutch subs imported in the 1980s. These outdated subs are obviously ill-suited to deter China’s new carrier equipped with the state-of-the-art weapon systems supported by Russia.

To remedy the cross-strait status quo tilting in China’s favor, the US must review the hold-up on its offer to sell Taiwan eight submarines. After all, any policy disregarding the Taiwan Relations Act would endanger the equilibrium in the Taiwan Strait and increase the likelihood of war that would involve the US.

An aircraft carrier is also a long-range power project weapon. Such a weapon in China’s hands could serve as augury for China’s rise and to determine if its intentions are hostile.

Some specialists have said that growing Chinese international stature and self-confidence also means fewer releases of human rights activists, less reticence about openly pursuing its military development, and increasing defiance when confronted with criticism.

The US, India and Japan would also be anxious about the prospects of carriers, about how they will be used in the Chinese fleet and what impact they will have on China’s foreign policy.

China’s military actions in recent years are particularly alarming. In April 2001 China ignored international law in holding a US EP3 flight crew for 12 days; in November 2006 a Chinese submarine surfaced in the vicinity of a US Navy aircraft battle group in the East China Sea; in January last year China launched its anti-satellite weapon without a public notice, putting at risk other nations’ space assets.

Even as cross-strait relations are thawing, China has not hesitated to deploy cutting-edge YJ-62 guided missiles with a maximum range in excess of 400km along the southeast coastline opposite Taiwan. These missiles are a military threat and hostile gesture toward not only Taiwan but toward all of China’s neighbors.

This is clearly at odds with China’s claim of peaceful rise or peaceful development. In fact, improving Sino-American strategic relations are conditioned upon China not challenging US global leadership, a position that Chinese leaders have repeatedly stressed. China’s rigorous military reach-out, however, is now being interpreted otherwise. The more China’s flexes its military muscle the more defiant it may become.

To mollify its neighbors’ worries, it would behoove China to explain the purposes and intentions behind its carrier-building program. The more transparent China is about its military and security affairs, the less other nation’s militaries have to assume the worst and respond accordingly, leading to potential misunderstandings, miscalculations and an action-reaction cycle of military preparations, to the detriment of all sides.

Yu Tsung-chi is a senior fellow at the Atlantic Council in the US.
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Monday, November 24, 2008

North Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
1st (Nuclear) Submarine Base
2nd Submarine Flotilla

12th Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
1st Destroyer Flotilla

DDG-112 “Ha Erbin”,
DDG-106 “Xi’an”,
DDG-107 “Yinchuan”,
DDG-108 “Xining”,
DDG-109 “Kaifeng”,
DDG-115 “Shenyang”,
DDG-116 “Shi Jiazhuang”
FFG-535 “Huangshi”,
FFG-536 “Wuhu”,
FFG-537 “Zhoushan”
10th Destroyer Flotilla
DDG-163 “Nanchang”,
DDG-164 “Guilin”,
DDG-105 “Jinan”,
DDG-105 “Jinan”
FFG-519 “Changzhi”,
FFG-543 “Dandong”,
FFG-545 “Linfen”

1st Landing Ship Squadron
1st Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
1st Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
2nd Naval Air Division
5th Naval Air Division
3rd Independent Air Regiment
6th Independent Air Regiment
Training Regiment
Shipborne Helicopter Wing

Coastal Defence Forces
4th Radar Brigade
11th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regiment
12th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regimen
2nd AAA Regiment
Electronic Warfare Regiment

Major Bases
Qingdao Support Base
Lushun Support Base
Weihai Naval Garrison
Dalian Naval Garrison
North Sea Fleet Training Base

Saturday, November 22, 2008

Varyag aircraft carrier

Renew U.S. Ties With the Changing Chinese Military
By Gerald Segal
Published: SATURDAY, JULY 18, 1992

HONG KONG: China is more secure than at any time in several centuries. Yet the Chinese People's Liberation Army, like many military forces in the post-Cold War world, is ill at ease because of major changes in the balance of power.

China also has particular problems in domestic politics. If the outside world wishes to help influence the Chinese military to make sensible choices, the time has come to lift the Western ban on contacts imposed following the massacre of pro-democracy demonstrators in Beijing in 1989 and to re-establish normal working relations with the Chinese military.

The military is a major player in the struggle to succeed Deng Xiaoping, China's senior leader. In recent months, it has been in the vanguard of support for Mr. Deng's distinctive mix of increased economic reform and tight political control.

The military now calls itself the "armed escort of reform." It sees economic growth as the way to enhance professionalism, increase defense spending and obtain more hardware.

Pursuit of professionalism is leading to remarkable changes in the structure of the military. Lack of contact between Western military personnel and their Chinese counterparts means that not enough is known about these changes.

Even Taiwanese officials acknowledge that about 45 percent of the Chinese military is now in strategic reserves, while most of the remainder forms rapid reaction units. These units are intended to cope with various smaller or more regional threats, for example in Central Asia. Parallel with the changes in the People's Liberation Army is a trend to regionalism in China's economic policy and the recent development by the military of tactical nuclear weapons.

The cutoff of Western military contacts has encouraged China to rapidly expand relations with Russia. China has been taking delivery of 24 advanced SU-27 jet fighters bought from Russia, and may be negotiating for 48 more. The initial order will be based in Shanghai and rotated through Hainan Island near the South China Sea. China will thus extend the reach of its airpower over this zone, although the range of the aircraft is limited and only the acquisition of in-flight refueling equipment will make a significant military difference.

Far too much weight has been given to Chinese interest in the Varyag, an aircraft carrier being built in a Ukrainian shipyard. Beijing may buy the ship for investigation and scrap, much as it bought an obsolete carrier from Australia some years ago. But China is far from having the ability to equip the Varyag, let alone acquire the aircraft and smaller ships needed to put an effective fighting force to sea.

But the absence of Western contacts with the Chinese armed forces has allowed speculation to run riot. Such contacts also would help unravel the extent of Chinese contacts with the Russian defense industry. Beijing is trying to entice Russian scientists to work in China. Discussions are underway about coproduction of some weapons, among them the Yak-141, a very short takeoff and landing plane that might eventually be placed on a Chinese aircraft carrier. Some sources suggest that Chinese and Russian officials are considering coproduction of follow-on models of the Sukhoi and MiG fighter series.

The choices that China and the People's Liberation Army make about defense policy will have far reaching implications for security in Asia and the Pacific. Thus, there is a strong case for reopening a dialogue with the Chinese military, especially to encourage it to support economic reform at home. At a minimum, such contacts would help the West learn far more about Chinese defense doctrine. The West also would be in a better position to try to engage China in confidence-building measures that enhance transparency.

Of course, it will be distasteful for the West to normalize relations with the armed forces that carried out the Beijing massacre. But similar contacts with the Warsaw Pact states were part of the effort that helped to defeat communism in Europe.

The writer is a senior fellow at the International Institute for Strategic Studies in London and editor of The Pacific Review. He contributed this to the International Herald Tribune.


East Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
22nd Submarine Flotilla

42nd Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
Destroyers 8
Sovremenny Class 4
Luda Class 4
Frigates 27
Jiangkai Class 4
Jiangwei Class 10

3rd Destroyer Flotilla
DDG-137″Fu Zhou”,
FFG-525″Ma Anshan”,

6th Destroyer Flotilla
FFG-522″Lian Yungang”
5th Landing Ship Flotilla
2nd Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
1st Corvette Flotilla
16th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla
21st Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
4th Naval Air Division

6th Naval Air Division

4th Independent Air Regiment

Coastal Defence Forces
2nd Radar Brigade
13th Shore-to-Ship Missile Regiment
Electronic Warfare Regiment

Major Bases
Zhoushan Support Base
Fujian Support Base
Shanghai Support Base
Xiamen Naval Garrison

IAF Red Flag

Friday, November 21, 2008

Quan-Sheng Shu,

Quan-Sheng Shu

Chinese-American scientist Quan-Sheng Shu, shown in a file photo, pleaded guilty Nov. 17, 2008, to passing on rocket technology to the Chinese government and bribing Chinese officials. (Adrin Snider, Daily Press / December 6, 2002)

Spy rocket system


WASHINGTON – A physicist in Newport News, Va., has pleaded guilty today to charges that he illegally exported space launch technical data and defense services to the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and offered bribes to Chinese government officials.

The guilty plea was announced today by Dana Boente, Acting U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Virginia; Patrick Rowan, Assistant Attorney General for National Security; Matthew Friedrich, Acting Assistant Attorney General of the Criminal Division; Arthur M. Cummings, II, Executive Assistant Director, FBI National Security Branch; and Alex J. Turner, Special Agent-in-Charge, FBI Norfolk Division.

Shu Quan-Sheng (Shu), 68, a native of China, naturalized U.S. citizen and Ph.D. physicist, entered his plea before Judge Henry C. Morgan, Jr. in U.S. District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia, Norfolk Division. Shu is the President, Secretary and Treasurer of AMAC International Inc., (AMAC), a high-tech company based in Newport News and that has offices in Beijing.

Shu pleaded guilty to a three-count criminal information. Count one alleges that from January 2003 through October 2007, Shu violated the Arms Export Control Act by willfully exporting a defense service from the United States to the PRC without first obtaining the required export license or written approval from the State Department. Specifically, the information alleges that Shu provided the PRC with assistance in the design and development of a cryogenic fueling system for space launch vehicles to be used at the heavy payload launch facility located in the southern island province of Hainan, PRC.

The space launch facility at Hainan will house liquid-propelled heavy payload launch vehicles designed to send space stations and satellites into orbit, as well as provide support for manned space flight and future lunar missions, according to a criminal complaint filed in the case. Among those PRC government entities involved in the Hainan facility are the People's Liberation Army's General Armaments Department and the 101st Research Institute (101 Institute), which is one of many research institutes that make up the China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, as overseen by the Commission of Science Technology and Industry for the National Defense, according to the criminal complaint.

Count two of the criminal information alleges that on Dec. 20, 2003, Shu violated the Arms Export Control Act by willfully exporting a defense article to the PRC without first obtaining the required export license or written approval from the State Department. Specifically, the information alleges that Shu illegally exported to the PRC controlled military technical data contained in a document entitled “Commercial Information, Technical Proposal and Budgetary Officer – Design, Supply, Engineering, Fabrication, Testing & Commissioning of 100m3 Liquid Hydrogen Tank and Various Special Cryogenic Pumps, Valves, Filters and Instruments.”

Count three of the criminal information alleges that Shu offered, paid, promised and authorized the payment of bribes to Chinese government officials to influence their decisions and secure an improper advantage, in violation of the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act. Specifically, Shu, acting on behalf of his company, AMAC, and a French company he represented, offered to pay money to foreign officials of the PRC’s 101 Institute to obtain a contract for the development of a 600 liter per hour liquid hydrogen tank system, according to the information.

The criminal information indicates that Shu offered money on three occasions to three PRC officials with the 101 Institute to secure the contract. In February 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth approximately $56,800. In April 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth some $56,800, and in May 2006, he offered “percentage points” worth approximately $75,700, for a total of $189,300, according to the criminal information. In January 2007, the $4 million hydrogen liquefier project was awarded to the French company that Shu represented.

Sentencing in this matter is scheduled for April 6, 2009, where Shu faces a possible maximum sentence of 10 years in prison and a fine of $1,000,000 for each violation of the Arms Export Control Act, and a possible maximum sentence of five years in prison and a fine of $250,000 or twice the gross gain for violating the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act.

This investigation was conducted by the FBI, with assistance from U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement and the U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of Export Enforcement.

The prosecution is being handled Assistant U.S. Attorney Alan M. Salsbury from the U.S. Attorney’s Office for the Eastern District of Virginia and Assistant Chief Robertson Park from the Criminal Division’s Fraud Section.. The Counterespionage Section of the Justice Department’s National Security Division provided critical assistance.

"Shu admitted to a lengthy set of facts, laid out in a 20-page statement detailing his four years of negotiations with the Chinese, with the help of an unidentified French company, for the design and development of a cryogenic liquid hydrogen rocket system.


PRC Missile and Space Forces


Monday, November 17, 2008

South Sea Fleet Order of Battle

Submarine Forces
Type 093 2 Nuclear-Powered Submarines
19 Diesel-Electric Submarines
2nd (Nuclear) Submarine Base
32nd Submarine Flotilla

72nd Submarine Flotilla

Surface Forces
17 Frigates
2nd Destroyer Flotilla

9th Destroyer Flotilla

6th Landing Ship Flotilla

3rd Combat Support Vessel Flotilla

Littoral Forces
11th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla
26th Fast Attack Craft Flotilla

Naval Aviation
8th Naval Air Division

9th Naval Air Division

7th Independent Air Regiment

Coastal Defence Forces
2nd Observation Brigade
3rd Radar Brigade
46th Shore-to-Ship Missile Battalion

Marine Corps
1st Marine Brigade
164th Marine Brigade

Office of Naval Intelligence China's Navy 2007

aircraft carrier

Aircraft carrier
The US navy has 11 aircraft carrier groups Photo: PA

Major General Qian Lihua, a senior official with the ministry of defence, seemed to accept speculation that China was planning to build an aircraft carrier, though he would not confirm when it might be launched.

"The question is not whether you have an aircraft carrier, but what you do with your aircraft carrier," he said.

But he said a carrier fleet would only be used for defence, unlike that of "another country".

"Navies of great powers with more than 10 aircraft carrier battle groups with strategic military objectives have a different purpose from countries with only one or two carriers used for offshore defence," he said.

"Even if one day we have an aircraft carrier, unlike another country, we will not use it to pursue global deployment or global reach." China has issued repeated hints that it is planning to build an aircraft carrier in recent years, and according to Jane's Defence Weekly recently began training 50 pilots for fixed-wing carrier-based aircraft.

But after initial plans were aborted in the 1990s, projected dates for a carrier group taking to the high seas remain unclear. A South Korean newspaper earlier this year reported that a mid-sized carrier was due to be completed by 2010, and a large nuclear-powered one by 2020.

Other analysts say China may already be working on three carriers, but say none is likely to be operational before 2015.

China's main naval priority is to deter American intervention in any conflict over Taiwan. One reason why the country has not yet developed an aircraft carrier fleet, unlike regional rivals like India, is said to be a desire to balance Washington's concern at its rapidly increasing submarine fleet, targeted at American battle groups.

The United States navy has 11 aircraft carrier groups deployed around the world, including one based in Japan.

But this balance may not last much longer, despite warming ties between Beijing and Taiwan.

"The navy of any great power has the dream to have one or more aircraft carriers," Maj Gen Qian said in the interview with The Financial Times.


Sunday, November 16, 2008

YUZHOU Class Amphibious Transport Dock in SSF

6th landing Ship Flotilla of PLA Navy South Sea Fleet

3rd Combat Support Ship Flotilla of PLA South Sea Fleet (2)

translation: Chinese » English

Kunlun Mountains in the South China Sea Fleet dock landing ship coming out for the first time exercise

Daily on November 14: gallop warships at sea, the eagles circling in the air. In early November, the South China Sea Fleet ships to support the organization, landing craft, destroyers, frigates, ship-borne helicopters, for the first time in the waters near the Nansha Islands to carry out a comprehensive operational training support. The success of their organizations, "a vertical cross" on the sea supply training at the same time, the drill ship-borne helicopters taking off and landing, hovering, reconnaissance, rescue simulation, and other subjects, so that the ability to ship machines coordination has been enhanced.

Attached Image Attached Image Attached Image Attached Image

Friday, November 14, 2008

Nanjing Military Region

Nanjing Military Region Air Force

3 Ind REGT 3 Fighter DIV 10 Bomber DIV 14 Fighter DIV
26 Fighter DIV 28 Attack DIV 29 Fighter DIV

Nanjing Military Region
22 Group Army 29 Group Army 60 Group Army
1 Group Army 12 Group Army 31 Group Army Shanghai Garrison
U/I Motorized Infantry BDE 179 Motorized Infantry BDE U/I Armored BDE
1 Amph Mechanized Infantry DIV 34 Motorized Infantry BDE 86 Infantry DIV
U/I Armored DIV 2 Armored DIV 91 Motorized Infantry DIV

36th DIV