Saturday, May 29, 2010
Posted on Friday, May 28, 2010 5:44:38 PM by sonofstrangelove
Bruce Lemkin, deputy undersecretary of the Air Force for International Affairs, told a congressional commission last week that China's missile capabilities pose a growing threat to U.S. forces.
“Ballistic missiles are China's primary prompt long-range offensive weapon,” Lemkin told the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission.
“They have one of the most active development programs in the world and the largest deployed conventional ballistic missile force of any nation.”
Lemkin said China has more than 1,000 short- and intermediate-range missiles with a variety of ranges, payloads and capabilities currently based in Southeastern China. Specialized warheads on the missiles include runway penetrators, anti-radar seekers and anti-ship payloads designed to threaten large naval vessels such as aircraft carriers.
“Taken together, ballistic missiles and cruise missiles provide China with the dual-pronged capability to strike almost any regional target to include airfields, ports, ships, military bases, logistics nodes, command-and-control facilities and industrial economic centers,” he said. “Chinese military writings also reflect a comprehensive understanding of information operations and their importance in modern conflicts.”
To fight modern wars, China is building its space warfare, anti-satellite weapons and electronic warfare capabilities.
“China is developing a large and diverse array of jammers and anti-satellite weapons to provide the capability to deny situational awareness to foreign military personnel, commanders and civilian leaders,” Lemkin said.
On China’s cyber capabilities, Lemkin said its cyberwarfare efforts are a growing concern.
“It threatens the integrity of military and civilian military information systems around the world in ways that are still not entirely understood,” he said.
Chinese air defense capabilities also are growing with “one of the world's most robust integrated air defense systems.”
Monday, May 24, 2010
World Military Network 2010-05-20 19:46:46
German media, "Rhine Outlook Journal" reports: China will stop production of 99 tanks, because the 05 new tanks coming soon. Type 05 tanks and three generations of semi-99A2 tanks, compared with a qualitative leap. 05 tanks can no longer simply viewed as a tank, but a super-marine attack platform, in addition to tanks, artillery, air defense missiles is also equipped with a precision and non-lethal laser weapons. Comprehensive view of operational performance of this tank at night is preferred, for night operations, but part of the data is unknown.
The article quoted sources from Beijing as saying that 05-style super-tank is the newest main battle tanks of the PLA, have excellent stealth bullet shape, its turret and body are used to strengthen composite armor, bullet-proof improved several times, is People's Liberation Army armored divisions and mechanized infantry division for the next major ground assault force, known as China's Super Marine ace, known as the world's first fourth-generation main battle tanks.
The full heavy battle tanks, 55 tons, length 10 meters when the muzzle forward, vehicle length of 7.6 meters, 3.5 meters wide, 2.37 meters high, the maximum highway speed of 90 km / h, 0 - 32 mph time of 10 seconds clock. People's Liberation Army-style Super 05 main battle tanks, made with a diameter of 152 mm high pressure smoothbore tank gun chamber, equipped with three types of ammunition types are new tail off shell stability, new shaped charge, artillery missiles. Stable tail off shell fired when initial velocity of 1950 m / s, direct distance of 3,200 meters, on the uniform thickness of 900 mm armor piercing more than a muzzle velocity of 1,500 meters when firing HEAT / sec. The gun is equipped with reliable self-loading machine gun rate of fire up to 12 rounds / min. Use of tungsten carbide stabilizing tail off shell, it can breakdown in the 2000 meters distance of 950 mm homogeneous armor, while the use of special alloy penetrators, the same distance of 1,000 mm armor-piercing capability, the gun can launch our newly developed 152-mm artillery self-guided missile, the missile a maximum range of 7.8 km, maximum depth of 900 mm armor, ancillary weapons: 13.8 mm automatic cannon a high shot, [Beitan 800 made]; 8.65 mm machine gun hand tied, [Bei Tan 3500-fat]; shell base 50 rounds; turret on each side 7 92MM smoke launchers.
05 advanced fire control system, with the 5th generation "Eye of Heaven" two-way stability fighter system can accurately high-speed moving target shooting, shooting 99 percent, with independent research and development of night vision, can be irradiated 0.1-8 km objectives, high-definition, 05 of the night fighting capability in the next few years, I am afraid that no one can surpass.
Liberation Army Daily of China reported a new tank night
The evening of September 1, the depths of the Xinjiang Tianshan Military training ground in an armored regiment was enveloped in a vast darkness. "All attention! Implementation of the program by 1." Came the head of the horse in the morning radio instruction. Immediately, the "012" was armored vehicles out of the valley, and began training for night ride synthesis.
At the moment, reporters inside the exposure Zheliang armored vehicles. Car in the huge roar off, the headphones came the soldiers asked each other the words: "Take arms, pay close attention to the prison." Suddenly an armored vehicle of a steep dive, the body suddenly sank, so that's a hit armor , the shock in a cold sweat.
Squad leader's sitting next to Wang Yonggang, said: "Adaptive training is a difficult ride content, and passengers can temper their physical skills and mental qualities, many soldiers carried out the initial training courses, will be dizzy and vomiting." Yuehua Jian, reporters glanced round, found the soldiers and they did.
As night falls, the mountains backward. Recruits suspected of containing a member of the window field of vision, to open the armored cover, immediately came to stop sound: "Caution! Head the 'enemy' aircraft reconnaissance." Sure enough, soon weakened headphone signal, issuing strident voice. "Oh, by 'enemy' strong electromagnetic interference." Co-pilot, communications, hand-century military quickly launched back-frequency electromagnetic interference equipment and networks, to frequency, frequency hopping and other means to quickly communicate with the contact. Next, the pilot light control strictly the use of infrared night vision equipment selection to avoid mobile line of camouflage ... ... well the fight prepared in accordance with regulations.
23:45, some reaching the battle area. Century military shouted: "There is the situation!" Voice hardly ever saw three red, two green signals to the sky made the squad leader Wang Yonggang a determination by the "enemy" chemical attack and interdiction fire. A soldier holding "enemy" Love told the reporter that simple signal indicator, they can encounter the "enemy", said the situation out of all the different signals, signal flares can only assume that showed more than 30 kinds of "enemy" situation, each all gains a complete digital soldiers.
Almost the same time, increased horsepower car, roared like the roar. Wang squad leader orders: "Attention all cars! Wearing gas masks, ready to make fire!" "Da da da ... ..." antiaircraft machine gunner King Division first opened by the fire instructions. For a time, a strong network of cross-fire, and worked in the night sky across the beautiful curve.
Tanks more trenches, climbing hills, accelerating the adoption of a fire block area. A violent jolt, journalists feel internal organs had been kept on turning up, wearing a gas mask breathtaking. Are feeling sad occasion, the radio came the "occupation of the impact of car No. 012 launch position to them." Just at that time soon. "012" car parking instant, containing members of the infantry two-pronged, soon enlivened the field and in the desert. Little effort, and the car on the pretext of the mountain, darkness and camouflage equipment of "hiding" up.
Morning, 4 red flares into the sky, the impact of launch. 1 armored vehicles rushed in the night "enemy" positions. Follow the aircraft conversion, the vehicle commander commands antiaircraft machine gunner while contain "enemy" fire, while using night-vision vehicle, reconnaissance equipment, communication equipment, the implementation of the infantry under the command vehicle; ground commanders are also informed by the process of fighting the battlefield situation , sometimes grouping, before the turn of the cover, sometimes interspersed roundabout, at the point attack, continuous strong blow to break the round after round of defense.
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USA rethinks view of China's next generation XXJ fighter
The USA is revising its assessment of the Chinese advanced fighter, which is known by its US Office of Naval Intelligence (ONI) designation of "XXJ". At the same time, Shenyang is developing a multirole version of the J-8II air defence fighter.
Washington sources say the original information provided by the ONI in 1997, showing a design resembling the Boeing F-15 Eagle, has been superseded. The agency predicted the XXJ would be multirole, have stealth features and was expected to enter Chinese air force and navy service by around 2015.
This estimate has been revised to 2010. Both Chinese fighter companies - Chengdu and Shenyang - are thought to be working on advanced combat aircraft concepts.
Indications are that the XXJ will have a canard configuration and be equipped with twin thrust-vectoring engines. The design seems influenced by Sukhoi's advanced concepts such as the Su-37 and forward-swept wing S-37 Berkut, suggesting that Shenyang, which has a link with the Russian manufacturer dating from the early 1990s, is the developer. Combining a foreplane, a tailplane and thrust vectoring enhances manoeuvrability.
Engines are likely to be a version of the Wopen WP15 in the 26,000lb-thrust (115kN) class. Pictures of a large engine equipped with thrust-vectoring nozzles was displayed at last year's Zuhai aerospace show.
The fighter is expected to have a 20,000kg (44,000lb) empty weight and incorporate a fly-by-wire control system similar to that developed by Shenyang and tested in the J-8IIACT programme.
Meanwhile, Shenyang is building a new multirole version of the twin-engined J-8II fighter, reflecting China's doctrinal shift towards offensive capabilities. Creating a new version of a dated design underlines the country's urgency in building up its strike forces.
Taiwanese and US sources say the J-8IIC is a J-8IID development, incorporating the latter's in-flight refuelling system and true, instead of secondary, air-to-ground role.
The aircraft is equipped either with a new Chinese-developed dual mode radar or the Russian Phazotron Zhuk-8II (acquired for the F-811M export fighter). Both have a 70km (38nm) range.
Other likely enhancements include a new electronic warfare system and an upgraded cockpit with multifunction displays, head-up display and the new data-link.
The fighter will be powered by a Wopen WP14 engine developing up to 16,215lb thrust, an improvement on the J-8IID's 14,550lb-thrust WP13A.
Sunday, May 2, 2010
China's 'Project 921'- Men in Space
This is the original, unedited text which was published in 'LaunchSpace', Oct/Nov 1998 Issue.
The Chinese space program in recent years has been punctuated by well-publicized launch failures interrupting strings of unpublicized launch successes, giving rise to the myth that the Chinese space program is one with low reliability and not in the same class as the programs run by other space powers.
Following high-profile launch vehicle failures, the Chinese have had a string of successes since late 1996. In some U.S. political quarters, these successes owe nothing to the Chinese ability to overcome problems, but are simply due to American help in improving the launch vehicles. Such a claim is an insult to the Chinese engineers and designers. Substantial evidence exists to give substance to China's announcements it plans to begin manned space launches in the second half of 1999.
Starting in the 1970s
The Chinese recovered their first Fanhui Shi Weixing (FSW) satellite from orbit Nov. 29, 1975, succeeding at their first recovery attempt. In this they equaled the Russians, who succeeded on their first recovery attempt, Korabl Sputnik 2. It was not until Discoverer 13 that the United States finally succeeded in recovering a satellite from orbit.
The Chinese recovery led to speculation about a manned program, but in reality, the FSWs were akin to scaled-up Discoverer/Corona satellites with reconnaissance as the primary mission. In all, nine FSW-0 satellites were launched and recovered, five FSW-1s were launched with only the last one failing to return to Earth, and three FSW-2 satellites have been launched and recovered.
Clearly, the Chinese have mastered one important procedure for a manned flight. But they weren't planning to fly people into space in the late 1970s. Rather, although interested in a manned space program, they were only doing the basic ground-based research that such a program would require.
China's "Project 921" manned space program
In November 1988, the Chinese propaganda publication China Pictorial included a series of photographs that apparently showed more men undergoing medical tests while dressed in spacesuits rather than simple pressure suits. It looked as if the Chinese manned program was "on" again.
Two years before, the Chinese had revealed plans for a whole family of new launchers derived from the successfully flown CZ-2C, which could place 2.5 tons into a low-Earth orbit, and the CZ-3, capable of lifting 1.5 tons into a geosynchronous transfer orbit.
When reviewing these vehicles for the July/August 1987 issue of the British Space magazine, this writer identified the CZ-2/4L (today's CZ-2E) as being particularly applicable for manned launches: with an 8.8 ton LEO capability, it could place a Soyuz-class space station ferry into orbit.
Over the last few years, details have started to appear concerning Chinese plans to put people into orbit. Known by its code name, "Project 921," the plan includes flying two astronauts aboard a spacecraft bearing many similarities to the Russian Soyuz which, in turn, was similar to some early 1960s Apollo concepts; the launcher will be a man-rated version of the CZ-2E. The Chinese have bought examples of Russian space technology (e.g., a Soyuz-TM life-support system, an androgynous docking unit and a pressure suit as used by cosmonauts), but they are not copying these - they are learning from them and then applying what they learn to their program.
Having a mass of about 8.4 tons, the Chinese spacecraft has two major external differences compared with Soyuz - it has two pairs of solar panels for the generation of onboard power and the forward module is distinctly cylindrical compared to the spheroid on Soyuz. Additionally, it is thought that up to four people could fly inside the Chinese spacecraft.
From the outset, the Project 921 spacecraft will be equipped with an androgynous docking system and an internal transfer tunnel, which the original Soyuz did not carry. This means that early in their program, two Project 921 spacecraft can be docked nose-to-nose and the two crews can move from one craft to another. When the Russians first did this with Soyuz 4/Soyuz 5 in January 1969, they had no transfer tunnel and two cosmonauts had to perform a spacewalk for their transfer. Two docked Chinese craft could act as a small orbital station for a few weeks, as a precursor to a larger, dedicated space station.
One of the launchers proposed in the mid-1980s was a CZ-3/8L, which essentially has become the three-stage CZ-3B but with eight strap-on boosters instead of four. A logical derivative of this concept would have been a CZ-2/8L, without the third stage. The payload capability would be 16 to 17 tons to LEO. This is heavy enough to launch a space station similar in concept to the original Russian Salyuts of the 1970s and early 1980s.
Satellite images have shown a new launch complex has been built at the Jiuquan launch site, one capable of launching larger vehicles than those that have flown from that site to date. Now confirmed by the Chinese, this launch pad is compatible with a planned all-new family of medium/heavy-lift launch vehicles - believed to be using LOX/kerosene in their lower stages rather than the Chinese standard N2O4/UDMH - as well as the existing CZ-2E vehicle. It is this pad that will be used for launches under Project 921.
What can we expect in the near future? Before the end of 1998, the Chinese should have test-flown both the man-rated CZ-2F vehicle and the Project 921 spacecraft without a crew. A second successful test in the first half of 1999 would clear the way for a two-man launch before the end of that year, conveniently tying it in with the 50th anniversary of the communist takeover of China. A nose-to-nose docking of two Project 921 craft should come two years later.
If all goes according to plan, during late 1999 or early 2000 China will become the third nation to launch its own people into orbit.
Phillip Clark has been studying the former-Soviet space program since the late 1960s and the Chinese program since the first launch in 1970. He publishes the monthly Worldwide Satellite Launches.
A FUTURE NEW LAUNCH VEHICLE FAMILY ?
It has been widely reported that the Chinese are building new launch facilities at the Jiuquan launch site and that these will be used in support of a new family of launch vehicles for a manned programme. Since the 1980s the Chinese have admitted that they are working on a Saturn-1 class launch vehicle without giving any real details about the project. On October 31, 1992 the Zhongguo Tongxun She news agency in Hong Kong reported that:-
Relevant sources in China's Ministry of Aeronautics and Astronautics Industry have disclose that China's first manned space shuttle will be launched from Jiuquan, Gansu.
According to the information, a space centre designed by Chinese engineers alone, is being built 200 km from Jiuquan City and the construction of a 200 km special railway to the centre has begun. The first phase of the project is expected to be completed towards the end of the 1990s.
At present all the technical officials concerned have taken up their positions. The person in charge here said: "The launch and retrieval of the first space shuttle will take place in the new space centre and the bases in its vicinity. It will take about ten years to accomplish this grand project."
It is now reported that the rail transportation system has been completed and that the launch pad assemblies indicate a launch vehicle far larger than the currently-existing family of Chang Zheng vehicles.
A paper was presented at the 1992 IAF Congress entitled "A Modular Space transportation System" (IAF-92-0857), which described a possible family of future launch vehicles derived from a basic two-stage vehicle which could be clustered in different ways and which could be supplemented additional upper stages. It is unclear whether this paper represents a purely theoretical exercise or whether it is indicative of Chinese planning for future launch vehicles.
The idea behind the paper is the development of a baseline two-stage launch vehicle with the characteristics listed in Table 1.
The Chinese paper notes that the first stage fuel would be a "hydrocarbon (CH)" and this is taken to refer to kerosene - especially since the Chinese would later express an interest in purchasing Russian liquid oxygen/kerosene engines (to be discussed later).
The use of liquid oxygen and kerosene on the first stage of this vehicle would mark a departure for the Chinese, since they have previously used storable UDMH and a nitrogen-derived oxidiser (usually nitrogen tetroxide). The choice of storable propellants is a result of the current launch vehicles being based upon missiles for which storable propellants is virtually essential.
The study called for a baseline vehicle with a length of less than 60 metres and a length/diameter ratio below 13. The study took the diameters of the two stages to be a common 4.5 metres which corresponded to a maximum length of 58.5 metres: in fact, a length of 55 metres was decided upon, including a payload fairing of 12 metres.
Data for the overall launch vehicle are:-
- launch mass 377 tonnes
- payload capability 11 tonnes
- length 55 metres
- diameter 4.5 metres
- first stage thrust 4.8 MN [490 tonnes]
One table in the paper notes a launch mass of 337 tonnes, but elsewhere the mass is quoted as 377 tonnes, a figure which is confirmed from simple arithmetic. The numbers imply that the payload shroud would have a mass of three tonnes. The payload mass is quoted in the paper for a 60o, 300-500 km orbit: from calculations by this writer these figures would mean a launch from Jiuquan with a good margin of residual propellant.
On top of the second stage an instrument unit 1.6 metres high would be carried, acting as a data-collection and processing centre for the vehicle.
The first stage would carry four engines which can gimble for control. The second stage a single main engine and a set of four verniers.
Taking this base design, it is proposed that a three-stage launch vehicle could be developed which could place 6 tonnes into geosynchronous transfer orbit: although not stated, one assumes that the third stage would use liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen - already in use with the existing CZ-3 and CZ-3A launch vehicles.
A series of different launch vehicles derived from the baseline launch vehicle's stages and the not-described third stage is proposed, leading to a maximum payload capability of 70 tonnes to the standard 60o, 300-500 km reference orbit. Details are given in Table 2. For the larger payloads a fairing with a diameter of 5.4 metres and a length of 18 metres would be used.
Thinking in terms of a manned programme, one can imagine that the baseline vehicle could be used to launch the manned spacecraft, while a "Model 1" derivative could be used to launch a space station module.
While the concepts of the 1992 paper are interesting and would represent an extension of the existing Chinese philosophy of taking the basic CZ-2C launch vehicle and modifying it to provide the full variety which we see in the CZ-2, CZ-3 and CZ-4 families, we have no idea whether the 1992 proposals will remain a paper study or will become (or even is !) a funded programme.http://www.geocities.com/CapeCanaveral/Launchpad/1921/story-3.htm
Born in 1970, Wang Chun studied at the Nanjing Aeronautical Institute for years since 1992, then graduated University of Defense Technology in 2006 to obtain master’s degree in aerospace engineering. After that, Wang Chun served in the Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute as a member of wing structure design team. Now he has been a senior engineer and general director of Near Space Vehicle Research Laboratory, Aerospace Technology and UAV Design Department, CADI(Chengdu Aircraft Design Institute).
The newspaper reported that Wang Chun’s over 10-year work mainly engaged in aircraft structural design, and involved the development of J-10 and FC-1 fighters. He also made great contributions for one key project of Chinese “National 863 Plan”.
China’s “Shen long” Trans-Atmospheric Vehicle
In a major project of “Tenth-five-year” plan, Wang Chun fully participated the space vehicle prototype’s design, overall assembly and flight test, and fully responsible for the development of a subsystem project management, presided over the completion of the emergency isolation system design, installation, ground test and ground flight test.
During the “Eleventh Five-Year” plan, he led the work of the average age of less than 30 years of a young team, undertook a comprehensive test prototype design work, which completed in just four years He has become the main contributor for the successful trial flight of aerospace fighter prototype.
The prototype space vehicle designed by Wang Chun, is distinguished with new concept, creative layout and new features for flexible deployment in space and air. His achievements make breakthroughs in space vehicle Integrated Design, multi-band space-borne shaping antenna working under extreme condition and useful payload structure design.
Saturday, May 1, 2010
2010-04-30 Author: From: Xinhua Views: 4511 User Comments 0
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Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is located in Qingdao City, West Coast Export Processing Zone, the Russian helicopters should Tong Ji Tuan Gong Si and Chinese joint venture, Zong Touzi 5 million yuan, registered Zijin 200 million yuan, an area of 181 acres, mainly engaged in Russian-made helicopter maintenance and spare parts sales
Invested 500 million yuan of the Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held.
Invested 500 million yuan of the Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held.
China and Russia shared the leadership of founder
China and Russia shared the leadership of founder
Xinhua Qingdao on April 29 (Xinhua Xu Bing Zhang Xudong) invested 500 million yuan of Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. foundation-stone laying ceremony on the 29th in the national economic and technological development zone of Qingdao City, was held. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
Russian Helicopter Technology (Qingdao) Co., Ltd. is located in the west coast of Qingdao Export Processing Zone, by the Russian helicopter company and the Chinese joint venture group should pass a total investment of 500 million yuan, registered capital of 200 million yuan, an area of 181 acres, is mainly engaged in Russian-made helicopter maintenance and spare parts sales, the Russian-made helicopter pilots and maintenance personnel training, and assembling parts of Karimov family and Miri series of small and medium helicopters. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
According to reports, the project was February 11, 2010 to complete the registration, which is the west coast of Export Processing Zone of Qingdao Haili Helicopter program after the United States to settle down after the second helicopter manufacturing project, a Russian helicopter company in India, South Korea and Spain established after the sixth state helicopter maintenance and service center. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence
It is understood that the aviation industry is the state-level economic and technological development zone of Qingdao four emerging industries, Qingdao Development Zone in Shandong Province has been classified as a light helicopter export base. Most recent projects and extensive radiation, high technology, high added value, is a capital and technology intensive industries. Military defense of Chinese military intelligence